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Flashcards in exercise phys exam 2 Deck (62):
1

PCr (phosphocreatine) is a buffer for ______

ATP

2

how long does it take to replenish PCr stores?

6 min

3

creatine loading:

20-25g/day for 5-7 days

4

what does creatine loading do?

helps increase performance for HIGH INTENSITY exercise

5

net ATP from glycolysis

2

6

what is the rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis

phosphofructokinase

7

exercise stimulates GLUT4 transporter to:

transform into sarcolemma and let glucose in

8

insulin does what?

increases glucose in the cell. independent from exercise

9

blood glucose does what after 1 hr exercise

decreases

10

what helps prevent decrease of blood glucose during exercise?

ingestion of carbs

11

how much should you drink every 15-20 min. during exercise to maintain blood glucose?

8-12 oz of a 6% CHO drink

12

what are the two main pathways in skeletal muscle that increase glycogenolysis?

ephinephrine and Ca++ calmodulin

13

high intensity, short exercise utilizes what as fuel?

carbs

14

low intensity, long exercise utilizes what as fuel?

fats

15

moves lactate into mitochondria for oxidation via MCT (monocarboxylate transporter)

intracellular lactate shuttle

16

moves lactate to utilizing tissue (heart or slow twitch muscle)

extracellular lactate shuttle

17

energy in fat

9kcal/g

18

energy in carbs

4kcal/g

19

an increase in cyclic AMP causes:

increase PKA which activates hormone sensitive lipase

20

fatty acids are moved into mitochondrial matrix for beta oxidation by what enzyme?

carnitine transferase

21

what has to be present to use fat as energy?

carbs

22

In the Krebs cycle, what are the intermediates for beta oxidation of fats?

carbs

23

Highly trained individuals utilize ____ as fuel source more than others.

fat

24

crossover point:

when you start utilizing fats over carbs

25

rise of epinephrine in blood causes what?

utilize more fats

26

epinephrine increases with

duration and intensity of exercise

27

RQ=1

glucose

28

RQ=0.7

fats

29

RER:

respiratory exchange ratio, events at the lung, VCO2/CO2

30

In a trained individual, the time to reach steady state is ____

shorter

31

Rapid Repayment of oxygen debt

resynthesis of PC in muscles
restoration of muscle and blood O2 stores

32

slow repayment of oxygen debt

elevated hormones
elevated body temp
lactate removal
post-exercise elevation of HR and breathing

33

the graph for max rate of O2 consumption looks like:

linear increase then plateau

34

to remove lactate faster, ____

move threshold to the right during endurance training

35

lactate threshold:

good estimate of race pace during endurance exercise

36

to reduce rate of lactate removal, ____

decrease lactate threshold

37

How do you make the lactate removal much higher?

cool down or light exercise after workout to decrease build up of lactic acid

38

what environment won't reach a steady state because there is a constant increase in O2 uptake?

hot and humid

39

what happens when you exercise for >10 min.?

ATP production is primarily from aerobic metabolism

40

Sprinting uses _____

PCr and anaerobic metabolism

41

mechanism of action for steroid hormones:

carrier protein in blood goes into cytoplasm

42

Growth Hormone helps maintain plasma glucose by 3 ways:

increases gluconeogenesis in liver
mobilizes FFA
decreases glucose uptake

43

Catecholamines do what to plasma glucose?

increase plasma glucose

44

pathway of cortisol secretion:

hypothalamus, CRH
anterior pituitary gland, ACTH
adrenal cortex
cortisol:stimulates gluconeogenesis

45

during exercise, glucagon____

increases plasma glucose

46

Insulin:

decreases plasma glucose, uptake of glucose into cells

47

lactic acid blocks mobilization of

FFA, lactic acid inhibits glycolysis by off setting catecholamines

48

Angiotensinogen was made in what organ?

the liver

49

angiotensinogen converts to what, by what enzyme?

converts to Angiotensin I by renin from kidney

50

Angiotensin I converts to what, by what enzyme?

converts to Angiotensin II by converting enzyme

51

Angiotensin II causes what

constriction of vascular smooth muscle

52

Angiotensin II then causes

aldosterone to be released, causing increased water and sodium retention

53

ADH

anti-diuretic hormone, water retention

54

when dehydrated, there is an increase in plasma osmolality. How does ADH respond?

ADH increases

55

hypovolemia

loss of body water due to increase of plasma osmolality
sweating decreases

56

hypoglycemic

low blood glucose, below 70 mg/dL

57

running economy

energy expenditure at a given running speed

58

5kcal =

1L o2 consumed

59

I met =

3.5 ml/kg/min

60

1 watt =

6.12 kpm/min

61

1kpm=

1 kgm

62

1 rev=

6m