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Flashcards in exercise phys exam 1 Deck (57):
1

maintenance of a constant internal environment

homeostasis

2

balance between the demands placed on a body and the physiological response to those demands

steady state

3

components of a biological control system

1. stimulus excites receptor
2. receptor signals integrating center of a disturbance
3. signals effector to correct disturbance
4. effector corects disturbance and removes stimulus

4

what does basal ganglia do?

smooths movements

5

motor control system

primary motor cortex
cerebellum
basal ganglia
brain stem
spinal cord

6

primary descending motor pathway from motor cortex to the spinal cord motor neurons

corticospinal tract

7

degeneration of basal ganglia (specifically nuclei called the substania nigra)

parkinsons disease

8

name 4 symptoms of parkinsons

tremor of hands arms legs jaw
rigidity or stiffness of limbs and trunk
bradykinesia or slowness of movement
postural instability or impaired balance and coordination

9

extensors are

ventral

10

flexors are

dorsal

11

what covers the entire muscle

fascia

12

what covers the fascicle

epimysium

13

what covers the individual fibers

perimysium

14

what covers the individual myofibrils

endomysium

15

what is a motor unit:

motor neuron and all the fibers it innervates

16

describe action potential

action potential leads to synapse, Ca^2+ channel opens, Ca goes into cell, ACh either binds to nicotinic receptor or gets broken down by enzyme acetylcholinesterase

17

define satellite cell and describe where its located

satellite cells repair damaged muscle, located between basement membrane and sarcolemma

18

what is the functional unit of muscle:

sarcomere

19

be able to draw sarcomere

Z line
I band: only actin
A band: both myosin and actin
H zone: only myosin
M line

20

what do you need to dissociate myosin head from actin?

ATP

21

essential and regulatory

MLC (myosin light chain)

22

ATPase and actin-binding site

MHC

23

binds to actin in thin myofilaments to hold the troponin-tropomyosin complex in place

troponin I

24

binds to tropomyosin, interlocking them to form a troponin-tropomyosin complex

Troponin T

25

binds to calcium ions

Troponin C

26

filamentous actin, whole picture

F actin

27

what makes the myosin head bind and perform perfect stroke

Calcium

28

elastic elements in I band, helps with stretching

Titin

29

links together adjacent myofibrils

Desmin

30

protein assemblies in striated muscle that physically couple filaments to sarcolemma

costamere

31

most important costamere

dystrophin

32

finish this sentence: the more sarcomeres,

the greater force you produce

33

what is activated by membrane depolarization?

DHP (dihydropyridine receptor)

34

then what happens?

DHP reacts with ryanodine receptor to release Ca into cytosol from SR to activate contraction

35

slow twitch fibers

type 1 fibers: slow-twitch, oxidative, MHC I

36

Fast twitch fibers

type IIx fibers: fast-twitch, glycolytic, MHC IIx
type IIa fibers: intermediate fibers, oxidative and glycolytic, MHC IIa

37

number of mitochondria

type IIx: low
type IIa: high/mod
type I: high

38

resistance to fatigue

type IIx:low
type IIa: high/mod
type I: high

39

predominant energy system

type IIx: anaerobic
type IIa: combination
type I: aerobic

40

myosin ATPase activity:

type IIx: highest
type IIa: high
type I: low

41

Vmax

type IIx: highest
type IIa: intermediate
type I: low

42

what muscle type creates the greatest force?

pennate because more sarcomeres = greater force

43

peak power ratio of type IIx:IIa:I

10:5:1

44

hypertrophy:

making muscle fibers bigger

45

protein right after exercise:

increases muscle protein synthesis

46

sensory fiber Ia:

muscle spindle: muscle length

47

sensory fiber Ib:

golgi tendon organ: muscle tension

48

III and IV:

free nerve endings, pain and temp

49

what happens when Golgi Tendon Organ is stimulated?

antagonist is activated and agonist is inhibited

50

what are the 2 main causes of DOMS

muscle damage and inflammation

51

prostaglandin

increases inflammation and hypertension

52

histamine

causes leaky capillaries, edema

53

what enzyme produces prostaglandins

cyclooxygenase (COX)

54

name 3 antioxidant enzymes:

superoxide dismutase
catalase
glutathione peroxidase

55

name 3 antioxidant molecules:

vit C
vit E
B-carotene

56

muscle growth inhibitor

myostatin

57

how can you reduce DOMS?

heat muscles to 40d C day before exercise
produce DOMS