Flashcards in psych 111 exam 2 Deck (95):
a naturally occurring 24 hour cycle; you sleep for 1/3 of your life. people kept in buildings without clocks have a rest-activity cycle of about 25.1 hours
a person's subjective experience of the world and the mind. the defining feature of consciousness is experience, which you have when you're not awake but experiencing from a vivid dream.
what 3 things does consciousness do?
1. restricts our attention
2. provides a mental meeting place
3. creates a mental model of the world-brings past and future to present.
when people aren't buys, there is activation in these areas of the brain; a study revealed that this network became activated whenever people worked on a mental task that they knew so well they could daydream while doing it. driving home from work
what are the 5 major characteristics of dream consciousness?
1. we intensely feel emotion
2. dream thought is illogical
3. sensation is fully formed and meaningful
4. dreaming occurs with uncritical acceptance, as though images and events were perfectly normal
5. we have difficulty remembering the dream after it is over.
what is dynamic unconscious?
active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person's deepest instincts and desires, and the person's inner struggle to control these forces
mental processes that give rise to a person's thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person
brain activity levels while sleeping
during waking, changes in electrical activity in the brain accompanying frequency activity during alertness and lower frequency activity during relaxation
stage 1 of sleep
sleep spindles, k complexes
rapid eye movement and high level of brain activity, similar to beta waves in stage 1
a sudden quiver or sensation of dropping, as though missing a step on a staircase
a low-level kind of sensory awareness and responsiveness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behavior
consciousness in which you know and are able to report your mental state, i'm fully aware
what is the solution to problem of other minds?
behaviorism, focuses on only behaviors and not what people are thinking
problem of other minds
the difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others
4 properties of consciousness
1. intentionality: quality of being directed toward an object
2. unity: resistance to devision
3. selectivity: capcity to include some obects
4. transcience: the tendency to change
rebound effect of thought suppression
don';t think of a white bear
REM sleep deprivation consequences
causes a rebound of more REM sleep the next night
distinct level of consciousness in which the person's attention is drawn to the self as an object
types of altered states of consciousness
what are the 3 functions of memory?
1. encoding- the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory
2. storage- the process of maintaining information in memory over time
3. retrieval- the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored
3 parts of the memory system
short-term memory (7+/-2)
long term memory
(be able to draw diagram)
7 sins of memory
transcience: forgetting occurs over time
absentmindedness: a lapse in attention that results in memory failure
blocking: failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it.
memory misattribution: assigning a recollection or idea to the wrong source
suggestibility: tendancy to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections
bias: distorting influences of present knowledge based on previous experience
persistence: intrusive recollection of events we wish we could forget
curve of forgetting
memorize 100 words-80%
next day, 20% but you don't keep losing after that 20%
detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events. 9/11
fast-decaying store of visual information
fast-decaying store of auditory information
long term memory:
type of storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years. split into declarative and procedural
enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus.
external information that helps bring stored information to mind
tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval
the aplysia study
sea slug. simple nervous system. long term storage involves growth of new connections between neurons. when you are creating a memory the connections between neurons strengthen.
implication: humans are much more complex then sea slugs
tip of tongue phenomenon
types of encoding:
process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory; associated with increased activity in the lower left part of the frontal lobe and inner part of left temporal lobe.
visual imagery encoding
process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures,
the process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items. example: waitress remembers orders by categorizing drinks, hot foods, cold foods, etc.
the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it.
what is the best way to learn new information?
test yourself (elaborative encoding) relate new information to what you already know
schedules of reinforcement:
fixed interval schedule:
reinforcers are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made: being paid hourly
variable interval schedule
a behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement; example: responses reinforced every 2 minutes on average, but not after each 2 minute period
fixed ratio schedule:
reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made; book clubs give you "freebies" after every 10 purchases
variable ratio schedule
the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses; laundry worker paid for every 10 shirts washed and ironed on average, but not for each tenth shirt.
behaviorism and learning
behaviorism is coined by Watson as a way that he described learning- relatively permanent change in our behavior or thought process. Watson says learning is gained from experience.
when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response
the CS is a tone that is followed immediately by the US, a puff of air, which elicits an eyeblink response. the air puff follows the tone, but the tone remains on when the air puff is delivered. the tone and air puff end at the same time.
uses the identical procedures, with one difference: there is a brief interval of time after the tone ends and the air puff is delivered. delay between neutral stimulus and conditioned stimulus
the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli. how can you train an animal to react to a certain bell, not every bell; opposite of generalization
the gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer present
a process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition, (different bell)
a general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in response
Law of Effect
the principle that behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated
a type of learning in which the consequences of an organisms behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future
a rewarding stimulus is presented
where an unpleasant stimulus is administered
where an unpleasant stimulus is removed
where a rewarding stimulus is removed
food, comfort, shelter, or warmth, they help satisfy biological needs
derive their effectiveness from their associations with primary reinforcers through classical conditioning: money starts out as a neutral CS that is associated with primary US's like acquiring food and shelter, that takes on a conditioned emotional element. (flashing lights is originally a neutral CS but acquires powerful negative elements through association to a speeding ticket)
second order conditioning
conditioning where the US is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure in which it was used as a CS
learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior.
the tendancy of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period.
little albert study
john watson the baby torturer, rayner. watson played loud noise with animals, newspaper, etc. albert learned to be scared of these things.
unconditioned stimulus: something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism; presentation of food.
unconditioned response (a reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus; dog's salivation)
conditioned stimulus (a stimulus that is initially neutral; bell)
neutral stimulus, produces no reliable response in an organism, bell, flash.
conditioned response; reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus; dog's salivation)
number of basic emotions:
6: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise
an eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake
an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging
exaggerating the expression of one's emotion, as when a person pretends to be m,ore surprised by a gift than she really is
muting the expression of one's emotion, as when the loser of a contest tries to look fine about it
expressing one emotion while feeling another, poker player tries to look distressed rather than delighted
involves feeling an emotion but displaying no expression. judge tries not to betray his leanings while lawyers make arguments
rate at which energy is used
internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality.
notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain.
faculty of acting in such a way as to produce certain ends, without foresight of the ends, and without previous education in the performance.
a motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding
a motivteion to take actions that are not themselves rewarding but lead to reward
maslow's hierarchy of needs in order
bottom: physiological needs (food and water)
safety and security
belongingness and love
need for self-actualization
most pervasive eating-relating problem,
human urges, some needs need to be satisfied before others (eat before love)
4 phases of sex: excitement:
muscle tension and blood flow increase in and around the sexual organs, heart and respirastion increases and blood pressure rises, penis erects, testicles draw upward
heart rate and muscle tension increases further. man's bladder closes to prevent urine from mixing with semen. muscles at base of penis begin a steady rhythmic contraction.
breathing becomes extremely rapid and pelvic muscles begin a series of rhythmic contractions.
muscles relax, blood pressure drops, body returns to resting state
hypothesis that emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone: every human being naturally expresses happiness with a smile, smile signifies happiness.
which emotions are universal>
anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise
why do people mimic facial expressions of others?
research shows that people unconsciously mimic other people's body postures and facial expressions. its main function is to help us figure out what others are feeling. expression-causes-emotion effect, when we mimic someone's facial expression, we also feel their emotions.
reward for behavior that gets you closer to the end goal. reward for every behavior that gets you closer to end goal.