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Flashcards in psych 111 exam 2 Deck (95):
1

circadian rhythm

a naturally occurring 24 hour cycle; you sleep for 1/3 of your life. people kept in buildings without clocks have a rest-activity cycle of about 25.1 hours

2

consciousness

a person's subjective experience of the world and the mind. the defining feature of consciousness is experience, which you have when you're not awake but experiencing from a vivid dream.

3

what 3 things does consciousness do?

1. restricts our attention
2. provides a mental meeting place
3. creates a mental model of the world-brings past and future to present.

4

default network

when people aren't buys, there is activation in these areas of the brain; a study revealed that this network became activated whenever people worked on a mental task that they knew so well they could daydream while doing it. driving home from work

5

what are the 5 major characteristics of dream consciousness?

1. we intensely feel emotion
2. dream thought is illogical
3. sensation is fully formed and meaningful
4. dreaming occurs with uncritical acceptance, as though images and events were perfectly normal
5. we have difficulty remembering the dream after it is over.

6

what is dynamic unconscious?

active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person's deepest instincts and desires, and the person's inner struggle to control these forces

7

cognitive unconscious

mental processes that give rise to a person's thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person

8

brain activity levels while sleeping

during waking, changes in electrical activity in the brain accompanying frequency activity during alertness and lower frequency activity during relaxation

9

stage 1 of sleep

theta waves

10

stage 2

sleep spindles, k complexes

11

stage 3/4

delta waves

12

REM

rapid eye movement and high level of brain activity, similar to beta waves in stage 1

13

hypnic jerk

a sudden quiver or sensation of dropping, as though missing a step on a staircase

14

minimal consciousness

a low-level kind of sensory awareness and responsiveness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behavior

15

full consciousness

consciousness in which you know and are able to report your mental state, i'm fully aware

16

what is the solution to problem of other minds?

behaviorism, focuses on only behaviors and not what people are thinking

17

problem of other minds

the difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others

18

4 properties of consciousness

1. intentionality: quality of being directed toward an object
2. unity: resistance to devision
3. selectivity: capcity to include some obects
4. transcience: the tendency to change

19

rebound effect of thought suppression

don';t think of a white bear

20

REM sleep deprivation consequences

causes a rebound of more REM sleep the next night

21

self-consciousness

distinct level of consciousness in which the person's attention is drawn to the self as an object

22

somnambulism

sleepwalking

23

types of altered states of consciousness

hypnosis
drug use
day dreaming
meditating
religious experiences

24

what are the 3 functions of memory?

1. encoding- the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory
2. storage- the process of maintaining information in memory over time
3. retrieval- the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored

25

3 parts of the memory system

sensory memory
short-term memory (7+/-2)
long term memory
(be able to draw diagram)

26

7 sins of memory

transcience: forgetting occurs over time
absentmindedness: a lapse in attention that results in memory failure
blocking: failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it.
memory misattribution: assigning a recollection or idea to the wrong source
suggestibility: tendancy to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections
bias: distorting influences of present knowledge based on previous experience
persistence: intrusive recollection of events we wish we could forget

27

curve of forgetting

memorize 100 words-80%
next day, 20% but you don't keep losing after that 20%

28

flashbulb memory

detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events. 9/11

29

iconic memory:

fast-decaying store of visual information

30

echoic memory:

fast-decaying store of auditory information

31

long term memory:

type of storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years. split into declarative and procedural

32

priming:

enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus.

33

retrieval cues

external information that helps bring stored information to mind

34

state-dependent retrieval

tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval

35

the aplysia study

sea slug. simple nervous system. long term storage involves growth of new connections between neurons. when you are creating a memory the connections between neurons strengthen.
implication: humans are much more complex then sea slugs

36


TOT phinomenon

tip of tongue phenomenon

37

types of encoding:
elaborative encoding

process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory; associated with increased activity in the lower left part of the frontal lobe and inner part of left temporal lobe.

38

visual imagery encoding

process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures,

39

organizational encoding:

the process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items. example: waitress remembers orders by categorizing drinks, hot foods, cold foods, etc.

40

rehearsal:

the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it.

41

what is the best way to learn new information?

test yourself (elaborative encoding) relate new information to what you already know

42

schedules of reinforcement:
fixed interval schedule:

reinforcers are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made: being paid hourly

43

variable interval schedule

a behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement; example: responses reinforced every 2 minutes on average, but not after each 2 minute period

44

fixed ratio schedule:

reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made; book clubs give you "freebies" after every 10 purchases

45

variable ratio schedule

the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses; laundry worker paid for every 10 shirts washed and ironed on average, but not for each tenth shirt.

46

behaviorism and learning

behaviorism is coined by Watson as a way that he described learning- relatively permanent change in our behavior or thought process. Watson says learning is gained from experience.

47

Classical Conditioning

when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response

48

delay conditioning

the CS is a tone that is followed immediately by the US, a puff of air, which elicits an eyeblink response. the air puff follows the tone, but the tone remains on when the air puff is delivered. the tone and air puff end at the same time.

49

trace conditioning

uses the identical procedures, with one difference: there is a brief interval of time after the tone ends and the air puff is delivered. delay between neutral stimulus and conditioned stimulus

50

discrimination

the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli. how can you train an animal to react to a certain bell, not every bell; opposite of generalization

51

extinction

the gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer present

52

generalization

a process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition, (different bell)

53

Habituation

a general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in response

54

Law of Effect

the principle that behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated

55

operant conditioning

a type of learning in which the consequences of an organisms behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future

56

positive reinforcement

a rewarding stimulus is presented

57

positive punishment

where an unpleasant stimulus is administered

58

negative reinforcement

where an unpleasant stimulus is removed

59

negative punishment

where a rewarding stimulus is removed

60

primary reinforcer

food, comfort, shelter, or warmth, they help satisfy biological needs

61

secondary reinforcers

derive their effectiveness from their associations with primary reinforcers through classical conditioning: money starts out as a neutral CS that is associated with primary US's like acquiring food and shelter, that takes on a conditioned emotional element. (flashing lights is originally a neutral CS but acquires powerful negative elements through association to a speeding ticket)

62

second order conditioning

conditioning where the US is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure in which it was used as a CS

63

shaping approximation

learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior.

64

spontaneous recovery

the tendancy of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period.

65

little albert study

john watson the baby torturer, rayner. watson played loud noise with animals, newspaper, etc. albert learned to be scared of these things.

66

US

unconditioned stimulus: something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism; presentation of food.

67

UR

unconditioned response (a reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus; dog's salivation)

68

CS

conditioned stimulus (a stimulus that is initially neutral; bell)

69

NS

neutral stimulus, produces no reliable response in an organism, bell, flash.

70

CR

conditioned response; reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus; dog's salivation)

71

number of basic emotions:

6: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise

72

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake

73

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging

74

intensification

exaggerating the expression of one's emotion, as when a person pretends to be m,ore surprised by a gift than she really is

75

deintensification

muting the expression of one's emotion, as when the loser of a contest tries to look fine about it

76

masking

expressing one emotion while feeling another, poker player tries to look distressed rather than delighted

77

neutralizing

involves feeling an emotion but displaying no expression. judge tries not to betray his leanings while lawyers make arguments

78

metabolism

rate at which energy is used

79

drive

internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality.

80

hedonic principle

notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain.

81

instinct

faculty of acting in such a way as to produce certain ends, without foresight of the ends, and without previous education in the performance.

82

intrinsic motivation

a motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding

83

extrinsic motivation

a motivteion to take actions that are not themselves rewarding but lead to reward

84

maslow's hierarchy of needs in order

bottom: physiological needs (food and water)
safety and security
belongingness and love
esteem
need for self-actualization

85

most pervasive eating-relating problem,

obesity

86

need

human urges, some needs need to be satisfied before others (eat before love)

87

4 phases of sex: excitement:

muscle tension and blood flow increase in and around the sexual organs, heart and respirastion increases and blood pressure rises, penis erects, testicles draw upward

88

plateau phase

heart rate and muscle tension increases further. man's bladder closes to prevent urine from mixing with semen. muscles at base of penis begin a steady rhythmic contraction.

89

orgasm phase

breathing becomes extremely rapid and pelvic muscles begin a series of rhythmic contractions.

90

resolution

muscles relax, blood pressure drops, body returns to resting state

91

universality hypothesis

hypothesis that emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone: every human being naturally expresses happiness with a smile, smile signifies happiness.

92

which emotions are universal>

anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise

93

why do people mimic facial expressions of others?

research shows that people unconsciously mimic other people's body postures and facial expressions. its main function is to help us figure out what others are feeling. expression-causes-emotion effect, when we mimic someone's facial expression, we also feel their emotions.

94

successive approximation

reward for behavior that gets you closer to the end goal. reward for every behavior that gets you closer to end goal.

95

dichotic listening:

trying to listen to 2 or more things at once; you are unable to take it all in.