Psych 111 exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psych 111 exam 3 Deck (48):
1

secure attachment style

majority, 60%, when caregiver returns, the infants who had been distressed by the caregiver's absence go to her and are calmed by her proximity, while those who had not been distressed acknowledge her return with a glance or greeting.
example: kids cry when parents leave them at nursery

2

avoidant attachment style

20%, generally not distressed when caregiver leaves the room, they generally do not acknowledge her when she returns. Class example is when the kid at nursery doesn't care when his/her parent leaves.

3

ambivalent attachment style

15%, almost always distressed when their caregiver leaves the room, but then they rebuff their caregiver's attempt to calm them when she returns, arching their backs and squirming to get away.
example: kid goes nuts when parents leave him, and when they pick him up he starts crying again.

4

disorganized attachment style

5%, no consistent pattern or response when caregiver leaves or returns.
example: kid looks like he is in another world

5

name the 6 basic newborn reflexes

suck, rooting, toe curl, startle, grasp, stepping

6

conservation

Piaget called a children's insight conservation. the notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object's appearance. This insight is gained during the concrete operational stage.

7

egocentrism

the failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers.
example: when 3 yr old is asked what a person on opposite side of the table is seeing, they typically claim that the other person sees what they see. one of the 3 plagues of the teenager.

8

imaginary audience

class definition was the idea that everyone is paying attention to you.
example: you have a spot on your shirt and you think everyone is watching you. one of the 3 plagues of a teenager.

9

joint attention

if an adult turns her head to the left, both young infants (3 mo.) and older infants (9 mo) will look to the left; but if the adult first closes her eyes and then looks to the left, the young infant will look to the left and the older infant will not. This suggests that older infants are not following the adult's head movements, but rather they are following her gaze-trying to see what they think she is seeing. The ability to focus on what another person is focused on.

10

Kohlberg's 3 morality stages:
Preconventional

This is what you start with when you are a child. Morality of a person's action is determined by the consequences that will happen.
example: you don't want to kill someone because you don't want to go to jail.

11

conventional:

morality of an action is primarily determined by the social rules or social norms.
example: we dress modestly because everyone else does and it's cool

12

postconventional:

morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values.
example: we keep the commandments because we personally believe them.

13

object permanence

the ideas that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible. when infants can do this they go from the sensorimotor stage to the preoperational stage.

14

personal fable:

one of the 3 plagues of a teenager. rules don't apply to me because I'm special.
example: duggy video

15

Piaget's stages of cognitive development with age ranges:
sensorimotor:

birth to 2 yrs, infant experiences world through movement and senses, develops schemas (theories about or models of the way the world works), begins to act intentionally, and shows evidence of understanding object permanence.
example: hide toy under blanket and pull blanket off

16

preoperational:

age 2-6, child acquires motor skills but does not understand conservation of physical properties. child begins this stage by thinking egocentrically but ends with a basic understanding of other minds.

17

concrete operational:

age 6-11, child can think logically about physical objects and events and understands conservation of physical properties.

18

formal operational:

11 years and up. child can think logically about abstract propositions and hypotheticals

19

social referencing:

an infant who approaches a new toy will often stop and look back at his or her mother, examining her face for cues about whether the mom thinks the toy is or isn't dangerous. The ability to use another person's reactions as information about the world.
example: abby does this all the time

20

Catell's Trait Theory:

narrowed 18,000 traits down to 16.

21

defense mechanisms:

unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses. Anna Freud identified the mechanisms.

22

rationalization:

involves supplying a reasonable-sounding explanation for unacceptable feelings and behavior to conceal (from oneself) one's underlying motives or feelings.
example: eat a donut because you worked out

23

reaction formation:

involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of their opposite.
example: 12 yr old boy is mean to the girl he likes

24

projection:

involves attributing one's own threatening feelings, motives, or impulses to another person or group

25

regression:

the ego deals with internal conflict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development.
example: acting out like a child

26

displacement:

defense mechanism that involves shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to a neutral or less threatening alternative.
example: slamming the door, punching the wall

27

identification

helps deal with feelings of threat and anxiety by enabling us unconsciously to take on the characteristics of another person who seems more powerful or better able to cope.
ex: act like a parent

28

sublimation:

channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities
ex: what byui does

29

Freud's 3 part personality

the mind consists of 3 independent, interacting, and often conflicting systems, id, ego, and superego

30

id:

Part of the mind containing the drives present at birth, source of our bodily needs and wants, desires, impulses, particularly our sexual and aggressive drives. pleasure principle.
DEVIL

31

ego

component of personality developed through contact with the external world, that enables us to deal with life's practical demands. reality principle.

32

superego

mental system that reflects the internalization of cultural rules, mainly learned as parents exercise their authority. conscience. produces guilt when we do something wrong, pride or self congragulations when we live up to standards
ANGEL

33

Freud's psychosexual stages

distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience sexual pleasures from specific body areas and caregivers redirect or interfere with those pleasures

34

oral

0-18 mo. experience centers on the pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth, sucking, and being fed.
associated personality features: talkative, dependent, addictive, needy

35

anal

2-3 yrs, experience is dominated by pleasures and frustrations associated with the anus, retention and expulsion of feces and urine, and toilet training.
retentive: being OCD
expulsive: being messy, you dont care

36

phallic

age 3-5, experience is dominated by pleasure, conflict, and frustration associated with the phallic-genital region as well as coping with the powerful incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealousy, and conflict.
Oedipus/Elektra: unaware desire to get rid of mother/father
features: flirtatious, vain, jealous, competitive

37

Latency:

age 5-13, primary focus is on the further development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills.

38

genital

adulthood, time for the coming together of the mature adult personality with a capacity to love, work, and relate to others in a mutually satisfying and reciprocal manner.

39

Oedipus complex and Electra complex

a child's conflicting feelings toward the opposite sex parent are usually resolved by identifying with the same sex parent.

40

personality

an individual's character style of behaving, thinking, and feeling

41

Rorschach inkblot

best-known projective technique. test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent's inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure.

42

the big five

the traits of the five factor model used on a scale
conscientiousness
agreeableness
neuroticism
openness to experience
extraversion

43

the pleasure principle

the "id" operates according to this principle, the psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse, the devil on shoulder

44

the reality principle

ego, regulating mechanism that enables the individual to delay gratifying immediate needs and function effectively in the real world.

45

thematic apperception test

tat, a projective personality test in which respondents reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people.

46

William James ideas on personality

points to the self as 2 facets, the I and the ME. the I is the self that thinks, experiences, and acts in the world. It is the self as a knower. The Me is the self that is an object in the world, it is the self that is known.

47

humanistic perspective:

the 3rd force

48

trait:

a distinguishing quality or characteristic