Flashcards in Psych 111 exam 3 Deck (48):
secure attachment style
majority, 60%, when caregiver returns, the infants who had been distressed by the caregiver's absence go to her and are calmed by her proximity, while those who had not been distressed acknowledge her return with a glance or greeting.
example: kids cry when parents leave them at nursery
avoidant attachment style
20%, generally not distressed when caregiver leaves the room, they generally do not acknowledge her when she returns. Class example is when the kid at nursery doesn't care when his/her parent leaves.
ambivalent attachment style
15%, almost always distressed when their caregiver leaves the room, but then they rebuff their caregiver's attempt to calm them when she returns, arching their backs and squirming to get away.
example: kid goes nuts when parents leave him, and when they pick him up he starts crying again.
disorganized attachment style
5%, no consistent pattern or response when caregiver leaves or returns.
example: kid looks like he is in another world
name the 6 basic newborn reflexes
suck, rooting, toe curl, startle, grasp, stepping
Piaget called a children's insight conservation. the notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object's appearance. This insight is gained during the concrete operational stage.
the failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers.
example: when 3 yr old is asked what a person on opposite side of the table is seeing, they typically claim that the other person sees what they see. one of the 3 plagues of the teenager.
class definition was the idea that everyone is paying attention to you.
example: you have a spot on your shirt and you think everyone is watching you. one of the 3 plagues of a teenager.
if an adult turns her head to the left, both young infants (3 mo.) and older infants (9 mo) will look to the left; but if the adult first closes her eyes and then looks to the left, the young infant will look to the left and the older infant will not. This suggests that older infants are not following the adult's head movements, but rather they are following her gaze-trying to see what they think she is seeing. The ability to focus on what another person is focused on.
Kohlberg's 3 morality stages:
This is what you start with when you are a child. Morality of a person's action is determined by the consequences that will happen.
example: you don't want to kill someone because you don't want to go to jail.
morality of an action is primarily determined by the social rules or social norms.
example: we dress modestly because everyone else does and it's cool
morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values.
example: we keep the commandments because we personally believe them.
the ideas that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible. when infants can do this they go from the sensorimotor stage to the preoperational stage.
one of the 3 plagues of a teenager. rules don't apply to me because I'm special.
example: duggy video
Piaget's stages of cognitive development with age ranges:
birth to 2 yrs, infant experiences world through movement and senses, develops schemas (theories about or models of the way the world works), begins to act intentionally, and shows evidence of understanding object permanence.
example: hide toy under blanket and pull blanket off
age 2-6, child acquires motor skills but does not understand conservation of physical properties. child begins this stage by thinking egocentrically but ends with a basic understanding of other minds.
age 6-11, child can think logically about physical objects and events and understands conservation of physical properties.
11 years and up. child can think logically about abstract propositions and hypotheticals
an infant who approaches a new toy will often stop and look back at his or her mother, examining her face for cues about whether the mom thinks the toy is or isn't dangerous. The ability to use another person's reactions as information about the world.
example: abby does this all the time
Catell's Trait Theory:
narrowed 18,000 traits down to 16.
unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses. Anna Freud identified the mechanisms.
involves supplying a reasonable-sounding explanation for unacceptable feelings and behavior to conceal (from oneself) one's underlying motives or feelings.
example: eat a donut because you worked out
involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of their opposite.
example: 12 yr old boy is mean to the girl he likes
involves attributing one's own threatening feelings, motives, or impulses to another person or group
the ego deals with internal conflict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development.
example: acting out like a child
defense mechanism that involves shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to a neutral or less threatening alternative.
example: slamming the door, punching the wall
helps deal with feelings of threat and anxiety by enabling us unconsciously to take on the characteristics of another person who seems more powerful or better able to cope.
ex: act like a parent
channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities
ex: what byui does
Freud's 3 part personality
the mind consists of 3 independent, interacting, and often conflicting systems, id, ego, and superego
Part of the mind containing the drives present at birth, source of our bodily needs and wants, desires, impulses, particularly our sexual and aggressive drives. pleasure principle.
component of personality developed through contact with the external world, that enables us to deal with life's practical demands. reality principle.
mental system that reflects the internalization of cultural rules, mainly learned as parents exercise their authority. conscience. produces guilt when we do something wrong, pride or self congragulations when we live up to standards
Freud's psychosexual stages
distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience sexual pleasures from specific body areas and caregivers redirect or interfere with those pleasures
0-18 mo. experience centers on the pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth, sucking, and being fed.
associated personality features: talkative, dependent, addictive, needy
2-3 yrs, experience is dominated by pleasures and frustrations associated with the anus, retention and expulsion of feces and urine, and toilet training.
retentive: being OCD
expulsive: being messy, you dont care
age 3-5, experience is dominated by pleasure, conflict, and frustration associated with the phallic-genital region as well as coping with the powerful incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealousy, and conflict.
Oedipus/Elektra: unaware desire to get rid of mother/father
features: flirtatious, vain, jealous, competitive
age 5-13, primary focus is on the further development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills.
adulthood, time for the coming together of the mature adult personality with a capacity to love, work, and relate to others in a mutually satisfying and reciprocal manner.
Oedipus complex and Electra complex
a child's conflicting feelings toward the opposite sex parent are usually resolved by identifying with the same sex parent.
an individual's character style of behaving, thinking, and feeling
best-known projective technique. test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent's inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure.
the big five
the traits of the five factor model used on a scale
openness to experience
the pleasure principle
the "id" operates according to this principle, the psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse, the devil on shoulder
the reality principle
ego, regulating mechanism that enables the individual to delay gratifying immediate needs and function effectively in the real world.
thematic apperception test
tat, a projective personality test in which respondents reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people.
William James ideas on personality
points to the self as 2 facets, the I and the ME. the I is the self that thinks, experiences, and acts in the world. It is the self as a knower. The Me is the self that is an object in the world, it is the self that is known.
the 3rd force