Flashcards in psych 111 exam 4 Deck (51):
behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself. Scientists and philosophers have debated whether people are every truly altruistic. common among animals.
asch study methods and results
asch had participants sit in a room with 7 other people who were actors. say which line matched a standard line that was printed on another card. 75% of participants conformed and gave the same wrong answer as the actors. the participants didn't actually misperceive the length of the lines but were instead succumbing to normative influence.
the tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it. it results in part from normative influence.
behavior by 2 or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit. cooperation is risky, the prisoner's dilemma illustrates why. ex: if everyone pays his/her taxes then the tax rate stays low.
why we behave so badly when we assemble in groups. when immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values.
diffusion of responsibility
another reason why we behave badly in groups. individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way.
a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership
dutton and aron's 1974 research results
men who met woman in the middle of the swaying bridge were much more likely to call than were the men who had met the woman only after they had crossed the bridge. men can misinterpret physiological arousal as a sign of attraction. the men experience more physiological arousal on the swinging vridge.
animal aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated. some psychologists believe it is incomplete. they argue that the real cause of aggressive behavior is negative affect, the inability to reach a goal is just one of many things that bring about negative effect.
occurs when another person's behavior provides information about what is good or right. if you stop and stare at the top of a building, other people will also stop and stare.
mere exposure effect
the tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking. participants liked old stimuli better than new. acquired taste. why coworkers fall in love.
milgram study methods and results
shocking experiment. 62% of participants went all the way shocking nearly the highest possible voltage.
murder rates in the US
males are responsible for 90% of murders, murder rates are much lower now than a century ago.
predictors of aggression
has decreased throughout recent generations. gender is the single best predictor of aggression. also culture. more prevalent in the south.
predictors of online dating research
mostly based on appearances.
a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership.
reasons men and women get married
the unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them. when a friend buys you lunch, you feel obligated to return the favor.
research findings concerning attraction
in one study, students who had been randomly assigned to university housing were asked to name their 3 closest friends and nearly half named their next door neighbor. best predictor is physical proximity of people involved.
body shape, symmetry, age.
study of the causes and consequences of sociality
4 species form societies in which large numbers of individuals divide and conquer
high hymenoptera: ants, bees, wasps
naked mole rats
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished.
psychosocial and environmental
global assessment of functioning
early explanations of strange behaviors and thoughts
demons/witchcraft. supernatural for things we don't understand
fear of public places
false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation. associated with schizophrenia, it can include hearing, seeing, or smelling things that are not there or having tactile sensations in the absence of relevant sensory stimulation. most often auditory: hearing voices.
major depressive disorder
severely depressed mood that lasts 2 or more weeks and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and lac of pleasure, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbances. sleeping too much or too little, overeating or failing to eat.
mental disorders that have mood disturbances as their predominant feature.
2 forms: depression and bipolar
depression, dysthymia (at least 2 years), double depression, SAD
repetitive, intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning. most common obsessions: contamination, aggression, death, sex, disease, orderliness, and disfigurement. typically take the form of cleaning, checking, repeating, ordering/arranging, and counting.
shortness of breath, heart palpitations, sweating, dizziness, depersonalization, derealization, fear that you are going crazy
% of americans who experience some type of mental disorder
according to the theory of phrenology, mental disorders could by diagnosed from bumps on the head.
disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations.
depression that involves recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern. in most cases it occurs in fall or winter
a disorder that involves an irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual's ability to function.
symptoms of mania
mood may be elevated, expansive, irritable. grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, talkativeness, racing thoughts, distractibility, and reckless behavior. sometimes hallucinations and delusions so the disorder can be misdiagnosed for schizophrenia.
2 groups of mental health therapy for mental health disorders
barriers to seeking treatment
1. people may not realize that their disorder needs to be treated.
2. there may be barriers to treatment, such as beliefs and circumstances that keep people from getting help
3. even people who acknowledge they have a problem may not know where to look for services
characteristics of psychoanalytic, humanistic, CBT, behavior, exposure therapies
psychoanalysis therapy: assumes that humans are born with aggressive and sexual urges that are repressed during childhood development through the use of defense mechanisms. focus on early childhood memories.
humanistic therapy: assumes that human nature is generally positive, and they emphasize the natural tendency of each individual to strive for personal improvement
CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy): blend of cognitive and behavioral therapeutic strategies. they acknowledge that there may be behaviors that people cannot control through rational thought but also that there are ways of helping people think more rationally when thought does play a role.
behavior therapy: assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors.
exposure therapy: involves confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response.
the culturally determined symbols and myths that are shared among all people that could serve as a basis for interpretation beyond sex or aggression
when a married, cohabitating, or dating couple is seen together in therapy to work on problems usually arising within the relationship
define psychologist, psychiatrist, social worker, and counseling psychologist
psychiatrist: MD who specializes in mental illness, gives drugs
psychologist: phd or a PsyD and takes about 5 years to get.
social workers: have a master's degree in social work and have training in working with people in dire life situations such as poverty, homelessness, or family conflict
counseling psychologist: requires a doctorate and practical training- the title use that key term psychologist and is regulated by state laws
directive vs. nondirective therapy
directive is where therapist guides (behavioral). in nondirective the client chooses what you talk about, the client is in charge (humanistic, psychoanalytic).
double blind experiments
both the patient and the researcher/therapist are uninformed about which treatment the patient is receiving
ECT and side effects
treatment that involves inducing a mild seizure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain. the main side effect is impaired short term memory, which usually improves over the first month or two after the end of treatment. some report headaches and muscle aches afterwards. side effects decrease after repeated exposure.
empathy, unconditional positive reguard
genuine reaction, empathy refers to the continuous process of trying to understand the client by getting inside his or her way of thinking, feeling, and understanding the world.
unconditional positive regard is providing the client with a nonjudgemental, warm and accepting environment in which the client can feel safe expressing his/her thoughts.
goal of psychodynamic therapy:
explore childhood events and encourage individuals to use this understanding to develop insight into their psychological problems.
group therapy, advantages and disadvantages
a technique in which multiple participants work on their individual problem,s in a group atmosphere. advantages: individuals can relate with one another, it shows that they are not alone. they can share ideas and insights about how to deal with problems. often as affective as individual therapy.
disadvantages: may be difficult to assemble a group of individuals who have similar needs. it may be a problem if one or more members undermine the treatment of other group members. some group members dominate discussions, threaten other group members, or make others in the group uncomfortable. finally,. clients in group therapy get less attention then in individual psychotherapy.
person centered therapy
assumes each individual is qualified to determine his or her own goals for therapy, such as feeling m,ore confident or making a career decision, and even the frequency and length of therapy. person centered therapists believe that with adequate support, the client will recognize the right things to do.
psychoanalytic free association, interpretation, regression, resistance
free association: the client reports every thought that enters the mind, without censorship or filtering. this allows the consciousness to flow unimpeded. if the client stops, the therapist will prompt further associations. therapist looks for themes
interpretation: this is the process by which the therapist deciphers the meaning underlying what the client says and does. the do this in free association and dream analysis
regression: reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development
resistance: a reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material. when someone doesn't want to talk about something
a proccedure in which a client relaxes all the muscles in body while imagining being in increasingly frightening situations.