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1

altruism

behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself. Scientists and philosophers have debated whether people are every truly altruistic. common among animals.

2

asch study methods and results

asch had participants sit in a room with 7 other people who were actors. say which line matched a standard line that was printed on another card. 75% of participants conformed and gave the same wrong answer as the actors. the participants didn't actually misperceive the length of the lines but were instead succumbing to normative influence.

3

conformity

the tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it. it results in part from normative influence.

4

cooperation

behavior by 2 or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit. cooperation is risky, the prisoner's dilemma illustrates why. ex: if everyone pays his/her taxes then the tax rate stays low.

5

deindividualization

why we behave so badly when we assemble in groups. when immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values.

6

diffusion of responsibility

another reason why we behave badly in groups. individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way.

7

discrimination

a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership

8

dutton and aron's 1974 research results

men who met woman in the middle of the swaying bridge were much more likely to call than were the men who had met the woman only after they had crossed the bridge. men can misinterpret physiological arousal as a sign of attraction. the men experience more physiological arousal on the swinging vridge.

9

frustration-aggression hypothesis

animal aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated. some psychologists believe it is incomplete. they argue that the real cause of aggressive behavior is negative affect, the inability to reach a goal is just one of many things that bring about negative effect.

10

informational influence

occurs when another person's behavior provides information about what is good or right. if you stop and stare at the top of a building, other people will also stop and stare.

11

mere exposure effect

the tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking. participants liked old stimuli better than new. acquired taste. why coworkers fall in love.

12

milgram study methods and results

shocking experiment. 62% of participants went all the way shocking nearly the highest possible voltage.

13

murder rates in the US

males are responsible for 90% of murders, murder rates are much lower now than a century ago.

14

predictors of aggression

has decreased throughout recent generations. gender is the single best predictor of aggression. also culture. more prevalent in the south.

15

predictors of online dating research

mostly based on appearances.

16

prejudice

a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership.

17

reasons men and women get married

love

18

reciprocity

the unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them. when a friend buys you lunch, you feel obligated to return the favor.

19

research findings concerning attraction

in one study, students who had been randomly assigned to university housing were asked to name their 3 closest friends and nearly half named their next door neighbor. best predictor is physical proximity of people involved.
body shape, symmetry, age.

20

social psychology

study of the causes and consequences of sociality

21

ultra-social species

4 species form societies in which large numbers of individuals divide and conquer
high hymenoptera: ants, bees, wasps
termites
naked mole rats
humans

22

DSM IV

diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished.
axises:
clinical disorders
personality disorders
general medical
psychosocial and environmental
global assessment of functioning

23

early explanations of strange behaviors and thoughts

demons/witchcraft. supernatural for things we don't understand

24

fear of public places

agoraphobia

25

hallucination

false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation. associated with schizophrenia, it can include hearing, seeing, or smelling things that are not there or having tactile sensations in the absence of relevant sensory stimulation. most often auditory: hearing voices.

26

major depressive disorder

severely depressed mood that lasts 2 or more weeks and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and lac of pleasure, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbances. sleeping too much or too little, overeating or failing to eat.

27

mood disorders

mental disorders that have mood disturbances as their predominant feature.
2 forms: depression and bipolar
depression, dysthymia (at least 2 years), double depression, SAD

28

OCD

repetitive, intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning. most common obsessions: contamination, aggression, death, sex, disease, orderliness, and disfigurement. typically take the form of cleaning, checking, repeating, ordering/arranging, and counting.

29

panic attacks

shortness of breath, heart palpitations, sweating, dizziness, depersonalization, derealization, fear that you are going crazy

30

% of americans who experience some type of mental disorder

50%