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Flashcards in FINAL version 2 - Sheet1 Deck (118):
1

1775- 1787. Americans were fed up that Britain had been taxing them without representing them. (Stamp Act) They wanted to form their own government, so they rebelled against Britain

American Revolution

2

1776 document written by Thomas Jefferson outlining reasons for the colonies to break the ties with England

Declaration of Independence

3

Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states.

Articles of Confederation

4

Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government.

Shay's Rebellion

5

Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives)

Great Compromise

6

Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House for representation and taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)

Three-fifths Compromise

7

The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press, right to bear arms and right to a trial by jury.

Bill of Rights

8

Compromise of 1820 over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.

Missouri Compromise

9

A legislature consisting of two parts, or houses

bicameral

10

A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power

Checks and balances

11

They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. The Anti-Federalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states.

Anti-Federalists

12

A protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government; Washington's quick response showed the government's strength

Whiskey Rebellion

13

1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. This doubled the size of the US and prompted the Lewis and Clark expedition from St. Louis to the Oregon Country.

Louisiana Purchase

14

(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. Established judicial review.

Marbury v. Madison

15

A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Monroe Doctrine

16

forced journey of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to a region west of the Mississippi during which thousands of Cherokees died

Trail of Tears

17

Agreement designed to ease tensions caused by the expansion of slavery into western territories

Compromise of 1850

18

1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.

Kansas-Nebraska Act

19

Notion that the people of a territory should determine if they want to be a slave state or a free state.

popular sovereignty

20

The right to vote

suffrage

21

Movement to end slavery

abolition

22

Said all slaves are property; not citizens. US couldn't prohibit slavery

Dred Scott Case

23

the event that caused the southern states to leave the Union

Lincoln's election

24

Famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant

Appomattox

25

Union strategy to defeat the Confederacy

Anaconda Plan

26

Major military turning point of the war. It is a Union Victory, and the South retreats from the North. General Lee never invades the North again.

Gettysburg

27

It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation which symbolized the diplomatic turning point in the war.

Antietam

28

Issued by Lincoln on Sept. 22, 1862; declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free; not applied to border states.

Emancipation Proclamation

29

1865-1877; the attempt to rebuild and reform the political, social, and economic systems of the South after the Civil War.

Reconstruction

30

Discriminatory laws passed throughout the post-Civil War South which severely restricted African Americans' lives

Black Codes

31

A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.

Ku Klux Klan

32

A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.

Sharecropping

33

Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites

Jim Crow Laws

34

A test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.

Literacy Test

35

A requirement that required black citizens to pay a tax in order to register to vote. Used to keep blacks from voting.

poll tax

36

Jim Crow law that discouraged African Americans from voting by saying that if your grandpa couldn't vote, then neither can you.

grandfather clause

37

Abolished Slavery

13th Amendment

38

Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

14th Amendment

39

Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude

15th Amendment

40

a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal

Plessy v. Ferguson

41

A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.

Manifest Destiny

42

1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.

Homestead Act

43

Railroad built to connect the east and the west led to more job opportunities and expansion into the west

Transcontinental Railroad

44

weather, locust, Indians, high railroad rates, low prices for crops

Farmer struggles in the west

45

(1862) Federal law that gave land to western states to build agricultural and engineering colleges.

Morrill Act

46

All Native American groups respected land . They thought that it could not be bought or sold. They treated land as a resource that belonged to all groups. Also believed that spirits lived in the world.

Native American beliefs

47

an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members because they left their reservation

Sand Creek Massacre

48

1876 - Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse led their Sioux tribe off the reservation and were discovered by General Custer and his 7th Calvary. At this battle Custer and his men were wiped out by the Indians

Battle of Little Big Horn

49

In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.

Wounded Knee

50

Process of making Natives more "American" by cutting hair, changing tribal identities, providing individual land plots

Assimilation of Native Americans

51

An animal that was used by the Plains Indians for food, shelter, and clothing.

buffalo

52

Reached America by the late 1800s. Economy used natural resources to become more based around a factory system, improved transportation, and used the increased immigrate worker to build new inventions

Industrial Revolution

53

most versatile inventor, invented the phonograph, the movie camera and the light bulb

Edison

54

These people were treated very poorly in the Gilded Age as they were forced to work 12 hours a day for 7 days a week in dangerous conditions, and paid very low wages.

Gilded Age workers

55

Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition.

Horizontal Integration

56

Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution

Vertical Integration

57

An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.

Unions

58

A group of reformers who worked to solve problems caused by the rapid industrial urban growth of the late 1800s.

Progressives

59

Charles Darwin's ideas applied to humans, "survival of the fittest." Used by wealthy to justify their top position in life

Social Darwinism

60

investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics

muckraker

61

President, from 1901-1909, passed two acts that purified meat, took over in 1901 when McKinley was shot, Went after trusts, set aside land for national parks and wanted to build the Panama canal

Teddy Roosevelt

62

Corporations that gain complete control of the production of a single good or service.

monopolies

63

Election in which voters choose the candidates from each party who will run in the General Election

primaries

64

Anonymous voting method that helps to make elections fair and honest

secret ballot

65

A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.

referendum

66

A procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.

recall

67

This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.

The Jungle

68

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries because of a larger demand for raw goods; need of markets to sell goods, religious zeal

Imperialism

69

idea to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized

White Man's Burden

70

Forcing religion and culture, pulls US into war and creates debt

Isolationists

71

the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests even though she wanted Hawaii to be controlled by the Hawaiians

Queen Liliuokalani

72

1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile

Zimmerman Note

73

Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.

de Lome letter

74

Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War

U.S.S. Maine

75

Prison camps where thousands of Cubans were sent. These camps were often overcrowded, unsanitary, and provided little food or shelter. The exaggerated reports on these camps helped build popular support for US participation to stop the cruelty in Cuba.

reconcentration camps

76

William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer published sensational stories and used this form of journalism to promote the Spanish-American War.

yellow journalism

77

War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and purchasing the Philippines for 20 mil.

Spanish American War

78

Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen

Big Stick Policy

79

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

Open Door Policy

80

A 1900 uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.

Boxer Rebellion

81

The United States built this to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa.

Panama Canal

82

(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic

Roosevelt Corollary

83

Foreign policy created under President Taft to basically exchange money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Dollar Diplomacy

84

Nationalism was very prevalent in the countries of Europe (especially Serbia) 3. Militarism or reliance on military strength 4. Imperialism and the conquering of countries in Asia, South America, and Africa 5. The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand by the Black Hand

Causes of WWI

85

encouraged people to ration, join the military and support the war financially through the purchase of war bonds

WWI Propaganda

86

Soldiers battled in harsh conditions and developed the "trench foot" from standing for hours in wet, muddy trenches. They got lice from the millions of rats that infested the trenches, lived in various trenches called the front-line trench, support trench and reserve trench.

trench warfare

87

A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.

Lusitania

88

German submarines that enforced the blockade around Great Britain, which became unrestricted submarine warfare

U-Boats

89

The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Air Force. 2) Germany had to pay war damages (33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons.

Treaty of Versailles

90

United States manufacturer who pioneered mass production so that automobiles were less expensive

Henry Ford

91

Grew popular during and after WWI and had a great impact on American society life

Radio

92

Popular style of music developed in America which became very influential in American society life

Jazz Music

93

The practice of paying for goods at regular intervals (or on credit). Associated with consumption in the 1920s.

Installment plans

94

Primarily a Republican policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference

Laissez Faire

95

Amendment that extended suffrage (vote) to women.

19th Amendment

96

A case of two Italian men who were convicted of murder in 1921. They were prosecuted because they were Italians, atheists, and anarchists. The trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's.

Sacco and Vanzetti Case

97

1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools

Scope's Trial

98

A social/political movement designed to prevent a socialist/communist/radical movement in this country by finding "radicals," incarcerating them, deporting them, and subverting their activities

Red Scare

99

A ban on the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages which led to an increase in organized crime

Prohibition

100

Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

18th Amendment

101

fear of foreigners

xenophobia

102

A teenage black boy accidentally drifted towards the "white only" section on Michigan beach. He was stoned and drowned.

Chicago Riots of 1919

103

Allowed people to borrow most of the cost of the stock, making down payments as low as 10 percent

Buying stock on margin

104

Investors started a panic by everyone selling their stock

stock market crash

105

(Banking Act of 1933) - Established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and included banking reforms, some designed to control speculation (banks playing the market with depositor's money)

Glass-Steagall Act

106

October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.

Black Tuesday

107

Republican President; approach to economy was to avoid destroying individuality/self-reliance by government. Relied more on private enterprise.

Herbert Hoover

108

insures money in banks

Federal Deposit and Insurance Corporation

109

monitors the stock market and enforces laws regulating the sale of stocks and bonds

Securities and Exchange Commission

110

closed all banks until gov. examiners could investigate their financial condition; only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen

Bank Holiday

111

(1929-1939) The dramatic decline in the world's economy results in millions of people losing their jobs as banks and businesses closed around the world. Many people were reduced to homelessness, and had to rely on government sponsored soup kitchens to eat.

Great Depression

112

President Franklin Roosevelt's programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life.

New Deal

113

Makeshift shacks where those suffering from the depression lived outside industrial centers and cities

Hoovervilles

114

Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important New Deal acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.

TVA, Tennessee Valley Authority Act

115

It was a New Deal relief program that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.

CCC, Civilian Conservation Corps

116

New Deal relief program that provided massive work projects ranging from construction to acting

WPA, Work Progress Administration:

117

New Deal program that established and adminstered a system of industrial codes to control production, prices, labor relations, and trade practices

NRA, National Recovery Administration

118

said it made the government too big and gave far too much power to the president

Critics of the New Deal