1775- 1787. Americans were fed up that Britain had been taxing them without representing them. (Stamp Act) They wanted to form their own government, so they rebelled against Britain
1776 document written by Thomas Jefferson outlining reasons for the colonies to break the ties with England
Declaration of Independence
Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states.
Articles of Confederation
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government.
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives)
Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House for representation and taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press, right to bear arms and right to a trial by jury.
Bill of Rights
Compromise of 1820 over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
A legislature consisting of two parts, or houses
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Checks and balances
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. The Anti-Federalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states.
A protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government; Washington's quick response showed the government's strength
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. This doubled the size of the US and prompted the Lewis and Clark expedition from St. Louis to the Oregon Country.
(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. Established judicial review.
Marbury v. Madison
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
forced journey of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to a region west of the Mississippi during which thousands of Cherokees died
Trail of Tears
Agreement designed to ease tensions caused by the expansion of slavery into western territories
Compromise of 1850
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Notion that the people of a territory should determine if they want to be a slave state or a free state.
The right to vote
Movement to end slavery
Said all slaves are property; not citizens. US couldn't prohibit slavery
Dred Scott Case
the event that caused the southern states to leave the Union
Famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant
Union strategy to defeat the Confederacy
Major military turning point of the war. It is a Union Victory, and the South retreats from the North. General Lee never invades the North again.
It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation which symbolized the diplomatic turning point in the war.
Issued by Lincoln on Sept. 22, 1862; declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free; not applied to border states.
1865-1877; the attempt to rebuild and reform the political, social, and economic systems of the South after the Civil War.
Discriminatory laws passed throughout the post-Civil War South which severely restricted African Americans' lives
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
Ku Klux Klan
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Jim Crow Laws
A test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
A requirement that required black citizens to pay a tax in order to register to vote. Used to keep blacks from voting.
Jim Crow law that discouraged African Americans from voting by saying that if your grandpa couldn't vote, then neither can you.
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Plessy v. Ferguson
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Railroad built to connect the east and the west led to more job opportunities and expansion into the west
weather, locust, Indians, high railroad rates, low prices for crops
Farmer struggles in the west
(1862) Federal law that gave land to western states to build agricultural and engineering colleges.
All Native American groups respected land . They thought that it could not be bought or sold. They treated land as a resource that belonged to all groups. Also believed that spirits lived in the world.
Native American beliefs
an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members because they left their reservation
Sand Creek Massacre
1876 - Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse led their Sioux tribe off the reservation and were discovered by General Custer and his 7th Calvary. At this battle Custer and his men were wiped out by the Indians
Battle of Little Big Horn
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Process of making Natives more "American" by cutting hair, changing tribal identities, providing individual land plots
Assimilation of Native Americans
An animal that was used by the Plains Indians for food, shelter, and clothing.
Reached America by the late 1800s. Economy used natural resources to become more based around a factory system, improved transportation, and used the increased immigrate worker to build new inventions
most versatile inventor, invented the phonograph, the movie camera and the light bulb
These people were treated very poorly in the Gilded Age as they were forced to work 12 hours a day for 7 days a week in dangerous conditions, and paid very low wages.
Gilded Age workers
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition.
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.
A group of reformers who worked to solve problems caused by the rapid industrial urban growth of the late 1800s.
Charles Darwin's ideas applied to humans, "survival of the fittest." Used by wealthy to justify their top position in life
investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics
President, from 1901-1909, passed two acts that purified meat, took over in 1901 when McKinley was shot, Went after trusts, set aside land for national parks and wanted to build the Panama canal
Corporations that gain complete control of the production of a single good or service.
Election in which voters choose the candidates from each party who will run in the General Election
Anonymous voting method that helps to make elections fair and honest
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
A procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries because of a larger demand for raw goods; need of markets to sell goods, religious zeal
idea to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
White Man's Burden
Forcing religion and culture, pulls US into war and creates debt
the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests even though she wanted Hawaii to be controlled by the Hawaiians
1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile
Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.
de Lome letter
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
Prison camps where thousands of Cubans were sent. These camps were often overcrowded, unsanitary, and provided little food or shelter. The exaggerated reports on these camps helped build popular support for US participation to stop the cruelty in Cuba.
William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer published sensational stories and used this form of journalism to promote the Spanish-American War.
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and purchasing the Philippines for 20 mil.
Spanish American War
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
Big Stick Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Open Door Policy
A 1900 uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
The United States built this to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa.
(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic
Foreign policy created under President Taft to basically exchange money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Nationalism was very prevalent in the countries of Europe (especially Serbia) 3. Militarism or reliance on military strength 4. Imperialism and the conquering of countries in Asia, South America, and Africa 5. The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand by the Black Hand
Causes of WWI
encouraged people to ration, join the military and support the war financially through the purchase of war bonds
Soldiers battled in harsh conditions and developed the "trench foot" from standing for hours in wet, muddy trenches. They got lice from the millions of rats that infested the trenches, lived in various trenches called the front-line trench, support trench and reserve trench.
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
German submarines that enforced the blockade around Great Britain, which became unrestricted submarine warfare
The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Air Force. 2) Germany had to pay war damages (33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons.
Treaty of Versailles
United States manufacturer who pioneered mass production so that automobiles were less expensive
Grew popular during and after WWI and had a great impact on American society life
Popular style of music developed in America which became very influential in American society life
The practice of paying for goods at regular intervals (or on credit). Associated with consumption in the 1920s.
Primarily a Republican policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
Amendment that extended suffrage (vote) to women.
A case of two Italian men who were convicted of murder in 1921. They were prosecuted because they were Italians, atheists, and anarchists. The trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's.
Sacco and Vanzetti Case
1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools
A social/political movement designed to prevent a socialist/communist/radical movement in this country by finding "radicals," incarcerating them, deporting them, and subverting their activities
A ban on the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages which led to an increase in organized crime
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
fear of foreigners
A teenage black boy accidentally drifted towards the "white only" section on Michigan beach. He was stoned and drowned.
Chicago Riots of 1919
Allowed people to borrow most of the cost of the stock, making down payments as low as 10 percent
Buying stock on margin
Investors started a panic by everyone selling their stock
stock market crash
(Banking Act of 1933) - Established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and included banking reforms, some designed to control speculation (banks playing the market with depositor's money)
October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.
Republican President; approach to economy was to avoid destroying individuality/self-reliance by government. Relied more on private enterprise.
insures money in banks
Federal Deposit and Insurance Corporation
monitors the stock market and enforces laws regulating the sale of stocks and bonds
Securities and Exchange Commission
closed all banks until gov. examiners could investigate their financial condition; only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen
(1929-1939) The dramatic decline in the world's economy results in millions of people losing their jobs as banks and businesses closed around the world. Many people were reduced to homelessness, and had to rely on government sponsored soup kitchens to eat.
President Franklin Roosevelt's programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life.
Makeshift shacks where those suffering from the depression lived outside industrial centers and cities
Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important New Deal acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
TVA, Tennessee Valley Authority Act
It was a New Deal relief program that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
CCC, Civilian Conservation Corps
New Deal relief program that provided massive work projects ranging from construction to acting
WPA, Work Progress Administration:
New Deal program that established and adminstered a system of industrial codes to control production, prices, labor relations, and trade practices
NRA, National Recovery Administration
said it made the government too big and gave far too much power to the president
Critics of the New Deal