Foundations of US History - Sheet1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Foundations of US History - Sheet1 Deck (58):
1

1st 10 Amendments to the Constitution

Bill of Rights

2

In 1773, Boston rebels dumped 18,000 pounds of the East India Company's tea into the waters of Boston harbor as a protest, because the company was not being taxed to sell tea, but the colonial tea sellers were.

Boston Tea Party

2

1787--12 colonies send delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation; Delegates soon agree the United States needs a new Constitution

Philadelphia Convention

2

435 Members, based on population of the state

House of Representatives

2

An order in which Britain prohibited its American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains

Proclamation Line of 1763

2

Constitution Written

1787

2

American Declaration of Independence

1776

2

Anti-Federalists did not support the new government. They wanted a Bill of Rights to make sure their rights are protected.

Anti-Federalists

2

based on equal representation (2 for each state)

Senate Representation

2

9 out of the 13 original states must agree to approve the new Constitution

Ratification

2

1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)

Articles of Confederation

2

Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition

1st Amendment

2

Right to bear arms

2nd Amendment

2

No Quartering of Troops in times of peace

3rd Amendment

2

Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and sets out requirements for search warrants based on probable cause

4th Amendment

2

Double Jeopardy: Can't be tried twice for the same crime; Self Incrimination: Right to remain silent; Must be paid for property if taken for public use

5th Amendment

2

Right to a fair, speedy trial in criminal cases

6th Amendment

2

Guarantees the right to jury trial in civil suits involving $20.00 or more.

7th Amendment

2

Amendment that prohibits excessive bail amounts and cruel and unusual punishment.

8th Amendment

2

Citizens are entitled to rights not listed in the Constitution

9th Amendment

2

Powers not delegated to the national government are reserved to the states.

10th Amendment

2

5 slaves would be counted as 3 people for the purpose of taxation and representation

3/5ths Compromise

2

A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments

Federalism

2

- farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey; the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion with 13,000 troops; showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem

Whiskey Rebellion

2

(1798) Alien - raised the residency requirement for citizenship to 14 year; Sedition - made it illegal to speak out against government or its officials

Alien and Sedition Act

2

1770; 5 civilians who were part of a mob killed by British soldiers; depicted as a brutal slaughter in colonial newspapers

Boston Massacre

2

Taxes imposed on the colonists to help pay for the debt incurred by the French and Indian War

Tea, Stamp and Sugar Tax

2

To approve

Ratify

2

A series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convince readers to adopt the new constitution

Federalist Papers

2

Branch of government that makes the laws

Legislative Branch

2

Branch of government that enforces the laws

Executive Branch

2

Branch of government that interprets laws

Judicial Branch

2

Cannot be tried for the same crime twice

Double Jeopardy

2

To cancel, to make null and void

Nullify

2

A document setting out the structure and main principles of a government

Constitution

2

No states can make laws going against federal government, Constitution is final and supreme

Supreme Law of the Land

2

prevents one branch from gaining too much power over the others

Check and Balance System

2

appoints numerous federalist "midnight judges"

John Adams

2

Declaration of Independence, Louisiana Purchase, strict interpretation of the Constitution

Thomas Jefferson

2

Loose interpretation of the Constitution, created the First Bank of the United States

Alexander Hamilton

2

1786-1787; broke out in Massachusetts due to high taxes and heavy debts; demonstrated the need for a stronger national government

Shay's Rebellion

2

1776 document written by Thomas Jefferson outlining reasons for the colonies to break the ties with England

Declaration of Independence

2

Author of the Constitution, President during the War of 1812.

James Madison

2

War fought between the American colonies and England. American colonies won war and gained independence and British land in North America.

Revolutionary War

2

created a two house legislature

Great Compromise

2

allows Congress to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" therefore allowing Congress to expand its powers beyond the actual text

Elastic Clause

2

The ability of the Supreme Court to rule laws unconstitutional.

Judicial Review

2

landmark case establishing the principle of judicial review

Marbury vs. Madison

2

warned the country against entangling alliances

Washington's Farewell Address

2

created by Hamilton and an example of his loose interpretation of the Constitution (elastic clause)

First Bank of the United States

2

no more further European colonization of the Western Hemisphere

Monroe Doctrine

2

no more further European colonization of the Western Hemisphere

Monroe Doctrine

2

War between the US and Britain. Dolley Madison saves Washington's portrait, the British burn the White House down and the Star Spangled Banner is written by Francis Scott Key.

War of 1812

2

A high tariff on imports that benefited the industrial North while forcing Southerners to pay the tax on goods they received from the sale of their cotton. Beginnings of sectional differences in America.

Tariff of 1828

2

1832 Supreme Court upheld 3 times the rights of Cherokees to their land and that they shouldn't have to move, Jackson refused to recognize the court's decision and moved thousands of Indians anyways

Worcester vs. Georgia

2

The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled more than 800 miles to the Indian Territory. More than 400 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.

Trail of Tears

2

Tariff is reduced and a law is passed forcing states to comply with Federal laws

Tariff of 1828 Compromise

3

How many in house of reps?

435