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Flashcards in Second Semester Finalé Deck (119):

Hitler invaded this country which was one cause of WWII



Lighting war, typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939



a military strategy of burning or destroying buildings, crops, or other resources that might be of use to an invading enemy force.

Scorched Earth Policy


(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.



Japanese attacked US fleet in Hawaii causing USA to enter WW2 December 7th 1941

Pearl Harbor attack


A mass slaughter of Jews and other civilians, carried out by the Nazi government of Germany before and during World War II.



laws passed in 1935, 1936, 1937, and 1939 to limit U.S. involvement in future wars.

US Neutrality Acts


Allied invasion of France on June 6, 1944



WWII strategy of conquering only certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance toward Japan. The US took control of numerous Pacific islands to get close enough to Japan to attack.

Island Hopping


U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.

Battle of Midway


A Pacific battle that lasted six weeks, where several thousand U.S. Marines, and more than 20,000 Japanese soldiers were killed; notable for the famous photograph of U.S. marines raising the American flag on Mt. Suribachi.

Battle of Iwo Jima


Native Americans from the Navajo tribe used their own language to make a code for the U.S. military that the Japanese could not desipher

Navajo Code Talkers


famous segregated unit of African-American pilots

Tuskegee airmen


City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.



2/19/42; 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes & businesses, 600K more renounced citizenship; demonstrated fear of Japanese invasion

Executive Order 9066


A U.S. program of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after World War II

Marshall Plan


Airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin

Berlin Airlift


(HT) , Term used by Churchill in 1946 to describe the growing East-West divide in postwar Europe between communist and democratic nations

Iron Curtain


Dividing line between North and South Korea

38th Parallel


Coined by George Kennan; urged the US to keep communism from spreading



The state of Israel is created and recognized world wide.

Israel 1948


(1950-3) A conflict between UN forces (primarily US and S Korea) against North Korea, and later China; Gen. Douglas Macarthur led UN forces and was later replaced by Gen. Ridgeway; Resulted in Korea remaining divided at the 38th parallel.

Korean War


Areas of living outside the cities where middle-class families went to live to escape the polarities of the city



1956 Eisenhower 20 yr plan to build 41,000 mi of highway, largest public works project in history

Interstate Highway Act of 1956


(JFK) , In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.

Bay of Pigs


(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba

Cuban Missile Crisis


First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.



A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West

Berlin Wall


drills in which students were urged to DUCK under their desks and COVER their heads to protect themselves from the dangerous debris and radiation associated with a nuclear detonation.

duck and cover drills


1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists

Joseph McCarthy


Refers to the dramatic post-World War II increased birth rate during which an estimated 78.3 million Americans were born.

Baby Boom


southern state laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites (grandfather clause, poll tax, literacy tests, separate but equal, etc)

Jim Crow laws


a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal

Plessy v Ferguson


1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.

Brown v Board of Education


Civil Rights Leader. Born in Atlanta. Developed a non-violent approach to social change after studying others like Gandhi. Founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Gave the "I have a Dream Speech" at the March of Washington

Martin Luther King Jr


protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.



a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961

Freedom Rides


Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings.

Americans with Disabilities Act


A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.

Black Panthers


1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulses to achieve true independence and equality

Malcolm X


a group of nine African American students who began the integration of the Little Rock, Arkansas, public school system

Little Rock Nine


(LBJ) , United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)

Rosa Parks


Governor of Arkansas at the time of the Crisis at Little Rock.

Orville Faubus


fourteen year old boy from Chicago murdered in Mississippi in August, 1954 for "flirting" with a white woman; open casket funeral mobilizes the black community, shocks, and unifies them (shown in Jet Magazine)

Emmett Till


Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan.

Medgar Evers


The first African American student at the University of Mississippi.

James Meredith


A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.

Civil Rights Act of 1964


This was a leader of the Indian independence movement in mid-20th century known for his nonviolent protests.



In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.

Montgomery Bus Boycott


a slogan used by Stokely Carmichael in the 1960s that encouraged African-American pride and political and social leadership

Black Power


held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally

March on Washington


Southern society formed in 1866 to prevent freed men and women from exercising their rights and to help whites regain power; revised in the 1920's to terrorize foreigners, Catholics, Jews, etc.,



1964 riots which started in an African-American ghetoo of Los Angeles and left 30 dead and 1,000 wounded. Riots lasted a week, and spurred hundreds more around the country.

Watt's Riot


6000 children marched in the place of protesters who had been thrown in jail. Authorities broke up the march with attack dogs, clubs, and high powered fire hoses.

Children's March


He was the chief of police of Birmingham, Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement. His use of excessive force against the peaceful marchers on television brought attention to the issue, and helped gain support for civil right legislation.

Bull Connor


Governor of Mississippi who tried to prevent James Meredith from entering Ole Miss, was extremely racist

Ross Barnett


King organized this major demonstration in Alabama to press for the right of blacks to register to vote. A sheriff led local police in a televised brutal attack on demonstrators.

Selma March


volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America

Peace Corps


President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly

War on Poverty


a preschool program for children from low-income families that also provides healthcare, nutrition services, and social services

Head Start


President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.

Great Society


Kennedy looked good while Nixon was recovering from a flu. Those who heard the debate said Nixon won but those who watched it said Kennedy won. This had an impact on the use of TV for politics.

1960 TV Debates


A federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older



Commission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assasination of Kennedy.) Conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own. Commissioner is Chief Justice Warren.

Warren Commission


Accused of assassinating JFK, but he was never convicted.

Lee Harvey Oswald


Soviet leader, publicly denounced Stalin, free many political prisoners eased censorship



58,000 Americans would lose their lives in the first TV war. The United States wanted to prevent communism from spreading to South Vietnam. Although America inflicted extremely heavy casualties on the enemy, public opinion turned against the war. More bombs were dropped here than on Germany, Japan, and Korea combined.

Vietnam War


Communist leader of North Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh


A Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.

Viet Cong


a strategy used in Vietnam in which American forces sought Vietcong and North Vietnamese units to destroy them.

Search and Destroy


The _____ Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.

Gulf of Tonkin


Reference to the period of relaxation or thaw in relations between the superpowers during Khrushchev's rule in the Soviet Union



A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.

Domino Theory


Pushing dangerous situations to the edge of disaster rather than conceding



A system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all

Collective Security


A jellied gasoline used for bombs



A chemical herbicide used to clear jungle growth in the Vietnam War

Agent Orange


Hippies - protested Vietnam War; rejected many ideas of their parents' generation; used marijuana; helped start a sexual revolution



A law passed in 1973 after Vietnam fiasco requiring (1) president to notify Congress within 48 hours of sending troops into combat and (2) begin to remove troops after 60 days unless Congress approves of the action. Limited effort to reverse erosion of Congress' war powers since World War II (last formal declaration of war).

War Powers Act


American ally in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963; his repressive regime caused the Communist Viet Cong to thrive in the South and required increasing American military aid to stop a Communist takeover. he was killed in a coup in 1963.

Ngo Dinh Diem


Lighting yourself on fire as a form of protest. Buddhist monks did this to protest Diem's persecution.

Self immolation


man in charge during the my lai massacre, only person to go to jail for it

Lt. William Calley


1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.

My Lai Massacre


A network of jungle paths winding from North Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia into South Vietnam, used as a military route by North Vietnam to supply the Vietcong during the Vietnam War.

Ho Chi Minh Trail


A series of major attacks by communist forces in the Vietnam War. Early in 1968, Vietnamese communist troops seized and briefly held some major cities at the time of the lunar new year, or Tet.

Tet Offensive


3 day rock concert in upstate N.Y. August 1969, exemplified the counterculture of the late 1960s, nearly 1/2M gather in a 600 acre field



During a protest in Kent State University (Ohio), 28 National Guardsmen panicked and fired on students, killing 4 and wounding 11.

Kent State Massacre


Riots and violence in Chicago outside the Democratic National Convention in 1968; protestors chanted "the whole world is watching" as police brutalized demonstrators and innocent bystanders alike

1968 Democratic National Convention


Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18

26th Amendment


Maya Lin, 1982, Black Granite; A reverent and quiet space, the shrine wall contains the names of 58,000 men and women who died in the Vietnam War

Vietnam War Memorial


an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for after a traumatic experience

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder


1974-1977, Republican, first non elected president and VP, he pardoned Nixon

Gerald Ford


a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)



(RN), 1972, The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment, Ford becomes President



Damning evidence on audio tapes of White House conversations that proved Nixon was involved in illegal activities while President

Nixon White House Tapes


imposed by OPEC and caused long lines at gas stations

1973 Oil Embargo


in 1979 Jimmy Carter successfully negotiated a peace treaty between Israel (Begin) and Egypt(Sadat). This is the only peace treaty between Israel and a Muslim country.

The Camp David Accords


In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.

Iran Hostage Crisis


1977 - Carter added it to the Cabinet to acknowledge the importance of energy conservation.

Department of Energy


US federal agency created in 2002 to coordinate national efforts against terrorism

Department of Homeland Security


Reagan's theory that if you cut taxes, it will spur the growth of public spending and improve the economy. It included tax breaks for the rich, "supply-side economics," and "trickle down" theory.



The lifting of restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities for which government rules had been established and that bureaucracies had been created to administer.



An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.

Supply side economics


A protracted military conflict in Iraq that began in 2003 with an attack by a coalition of forces led by the United States and that resulted in the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's regime

War in Iraq


Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)



Between 1989 and 1991, communist regimes across Europe were replaced by democratically elected governments.

Fall of Communism in Europe


A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society



A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev which called for more openness with the nations of West, and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry.



scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected

Iran Contra Affair


(1990 - 1991) Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the United States to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply. A very one sided war with the United States' coalition emerging victorious.

Persian Gulf War


Bombing of Murrah Federal Building. The blast, set off by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, killed 168 people, including 19 children in the building's day-care center.

Oklahoma City Bombing


Two high school seniors armed with guns and explosives waged a violent assault on the school. They killed 12 fellow students and one teacher before shooting themselves. Led to a concern about the availability of guns.

Columbine High School Shooting


Terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon



NATO members -goal: remove Ben Laden, Al Qaeda and the Taliban government that supports them

War in Afghanistan


Islamic Terrorists group that is currently trying to create an Islamic State in the Middle East



During the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013. The two suspects were identified later that day as the brothers Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnae

Boston Marathon Bombing


20 children were killed by Adam Lanza at an Elementary school in Connecticut

Sandy Hook Shooting


(1957-2011) Founder of al Qaeda, Arab terrorist responsible for the attacks of September 11, 2001, and other attacks; captured and killed by U.S. forces in 2011

Osama Bin Laden


An expansion of medicaid, most of employers must provide health insurance, have insurance or face surtax, prevents rejection based on pre-existing condition. Also referred to as "Obamacare", signed into law in 2010.

Affordable Care Act