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Flashcards in fong I Deck (30):
1

where are most of the interstitial fluids?

in the ECF

2

the volume of the ECF is determined by what organ?

the kidneys

3

during acidosis, how does the kidney compensate?

the proximal tubules compensate by oxidizing glutamine to form HCO-/3 (absorbed into blood) and NH+/4 is excreted

4

when does gluconeogenesis happen in the kidney?

in times of fasting

5

what important regulatory hormones does the kidney produce or regulate?

renin, 1-alpha 25-dihydroxvitamin D3, and erythropoietin

6

generally the kidneys function to maintain what?

homeostasis

7

total body water comprises what percentage of body weight?

~60%

8

how much of the water in our bodies is in the ICF? ECF?

ICF = 2/3
ECF = 1/3

9

how does the body govern the amount of fluid in a particular compartment?

1. hydrostatic pressure
2. oncotic pressure
3. Starling forces
4. osmotic pressure

10

what is oncotic pressure?

the pressure that is exerted by large molecules in a solution

11

oncotic pressure does what to water?

oncotic pressure DRAWS water

12

hydrostatic pressure does what to water?

hydrostatic pressure PUSHES water

13

what is Kf in the Starling force eq?

filtration coefficient

14

what is Pc in the Starling force eq?

hydrostatic pressure, capillary

15

what is Pi,i in the Starling force eq?

oncotic pressure, interstitial

16

what is Pi in the Starling force eq?

hydrostatic pressure, interstitial

17

what is Pi,c in the Starling force eq?

oncotic pressure, capillary

18

what happens when blood pressure affects the distribution of volume between the IVF and ISF?

edema

19

what does renin involved in?

regulating blood pressure

20

what is 1-alpha,25-dihyroxvitamin D3 involved in?

calcium homeostasis

21

what is erythropoietin involved in?

RBC production

22

one of the most important functions of the kidney is what?

to maintain the COMPOSITION and VOLUME of the ECF

23

the volume in a given compartment depends on the ?

NUMBER of solute particles in that compartment

24

the volume in a given compartment does NOT depend on?

any specific property of a solute (eg. charge, size, shape)

25

what does osmotic gradients govern?

water movements

26

lower concentration of osmotically active solutes exerts what kind of osmotic pressure?

lower osmotic pressure

27

higher concentration of osmotically active solutes exerts what kind of osmotic pressure?

higher osmotic pressure

28

are most biological membranes permeable to water?

yes

29

water permeation across a membrane requires what?

osmotic gradient

30

what is the concept of set point?

1. system requires SENSORS/DETECTORS
2. coordination of sensed signals
3. feedback/adjustment mechanisms: EFFECTORS