Flashcards in pancreas Deck (43):
is the duodenal or splenic lobe of the pancreas thicker?
what type of hormone is insulin?
where is insulin synthesized?
beta cells of the pancreas
- in the endoplasmic reticulum
what increases insulin productino?
-increased plasma [glucose]
is insulin water-soluble?
is insulin protein-bound?
main actions of insulin:
-metabolism of carbs, fats and proteins
release of insulin via
insulin leads to what
-increased cellular glucose uptake
-increased synthesis of glycogen(liver), triglyceride(adipose), protein (muscle)
what GLUT is used by muscle and adipose tissue?
what GLUT is used by neurons?
what GLUT is used by erythrocytes?
what GLUT is used by intestinal muscosal cells
synthesis of glycogen from glucose occurs where?
synthesis of triglycerides fatty acids occurs where?
synthesis of protein from amino acids occurs where?
muscle (due to increased AA uptake)
what is the most important factor controlling insulin release?
which produces a greater insulin response, oral glucose or blood glucose?
insulin is governed by a (+/-) feedback mechanism?
what decreases insulin secretion?
-via alpha-adrenergic receptors on beta cells
what input increases insulin release?
the insulin:____ ratio is important
what increases glucagon synthesis?
-catecholamines (e.g. EPI)
-glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol)
what decreases glucagon synthesis?
-high plasma [glucose], [insulin]
-high plasma [free fatty acids]
what cells produce glucagon?
alpha cells in the pancreas
glucagon has a direct stimulatory effect on what cells?
effects of glucagon on the liver
-inhibits FFA production from glucose
what is the net result of glucagon?
increased blood glucose
effects of glucagon on adipose tissue?
leads to increased lipolysis
during DM, in what direction is the insulin/glucagon ratio shifted?
liver shifted in the glucagon direction
glucagon and insulin release are stimulated by what nervous system?
glucagon release, and NOT insulin, is stimulated by what nervous system?
stressed cats especially display what?
how do you test for islet cell function?
- glucose tolerance test
-3 blood glucose readings
what is the translation of diabetes mellitus?
what is diabetes mellitus?
absolute of relative deficiency of insulin
what does canine parvovirus cause in the dog?
destruction of beta cells (type I)
what is a major clinical of type of DM?
what are the signs of diabetes mellitus?
-obese w/ recent weight loss
-ketone (acetone) breathe
which type of DM is most common in companion animals?
type I -insulin-dependent
what type of diabetes mellitus is most common in people?
type II - insulin independent
what is the predominant effect of type II DM with low BW?
impaired insulin secretion