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Flashcards in pancreas Deck (43):
1

is the duodenal or splenic lobe of the pancreas thicker?

splenic

2

what type of hormone is insulin?

protein

3

where is insulin synthesized?

beta cells of the pancreas
- in the endoplasmic reticulum

4

what increases insulin productino?

-increased plasma [glucose]
-GI hormones

5

is insulin water-soluble?

yes

6

is insulin protein-bound?

no

7

main actions of insulin:

-anabolic
-metabolism of carbs, fats and proteins

8

release of insulin via

increased [calcium]i

9

insulin leads to what

-increased cellular glucose uptake
-increased synthesis of glycogen(liver), triglyceride(adipose), protein (muscle)

10

what GLUT is used by muscle and adipose tissue?

GLUT 4

11

what GLUT is used by neurons?

GLUT 3

12

what GLUT is used by erythrocytes?

GLUT 1

13

what GLUT is used by intestinal muscosal cells

GLUT2

14

synthesis of glycogen from glucose occurs where?

liver

15

synthesis of triglycerides fatty acids occurs where?

adipose tissue

16

synthesis of protein from amino acids occurs where?

muscle (due to increased AA uptake)

17

what is the most important factor controlling insulin release?

blood glucose

18

which produces a greater insulin response, oral glucose or blood glucose?

oral glucose

19

insulin is governed by a (+/-) feedback mechanism?

positive feedback

20

what decreases insulin secretion?

catecholamines
-via alpha-adrenergic receptors on beta cells

21

what input increases insulin release?

cholinergic input

22

the insulin:____ ratio is important

glucagon

23

what increases glucagon synthesis?

-catecholamines (e.g. EPI)
-glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol)
-amino acids

24

what decreases glucagon synthesis?

-high plasma [glucose], [insulin]
-high plasma [free fatty acids]

25

what cells produce glucagon?

alpha cells in the pancreas

26

glucagon has a direct stimulatory effect on what cells?

beta cells

27

effects of glucagon on the liver

-increased glycogenolysis
-increased gluconeogenesis
-inhibits FFA production from glucose

28

what is the net result of glucagon?

increased blood glucose

29

effects of glucagon on adipose tissue?

leads to increased lipolysis

30

during DM, in what direction is the insulin/glucagon ratio shifted?

liver shifted in the glucagon direction

31

glucagon and insulin release are stimulated by what nervous system?

parasympathetic NS

32

glucagon release, and NOT insulin, is stimulated by what nervous system?

sympathetic NS

33

stressed cats especially display what?

hyperglycemia

34

how do you test for islet cell function?

- glucose tolerance test
-3 blood glucose readings
-insulin RIA

35

what is the translation of diabetes mellitus?

sweet diuresis

36

what is diabetes mellitus?

absolute of relative deficiency of insulin

37

what does canine parvovirus cause in the dog?

destruction of beta cells (type I)

38

what is a major clinical of type of DM?

ketoacidotic

39

what are the signs of diabetes mellitus?

-polyuria
-polydipsia
-cataracts
-obese w/ recent weight loss
-hepatomegaly
-ketone (acetone) breathe

40

which type of DM is most common in companion animals?

type I -insulin-dependent

41

what type of diabetes mellitus is most common in people?

type II - insulin independent

42

what is the predominant effect of type II DM with low BW?

impaired insulin secretion

43

what is the predominant effect of type I DM with obesity?

-insulin resistance
-hyperinsulinemia