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Flashcards in GI1 Deck (34):
1

how is the GI system regulated?

-innervation
- hormonal control
- immune control
- trophic effects

2

what is feeding?

the acquisition and ingestion of food

3

what species has the simplest GI system?

C. elegans

4

ezymatic digestion is the breakdown of what?

starches/sugars, proteins and fats

5

fermentative digestion involves what/

symbiotic microbes

6

bacteria in your gut can break down antioxidants in chocolate into what

anti-inflammatory compounds

7

what kind of digestion do carnivores have?

primarily enzymatic

8

what kind of digestion do omnivores have?

enzymatic and fermentative

9

______ ______ and ____ control are essential for GI functions

-intrinsic neural
-endocrine

10

what does motility do?

moves food

11

what does digestion do?

secretion of digestive substances

12

what does absorption do?

transports nutrients from the lumen to the blood

13

what is delivery?

circulation/distribution of absorbed substances

14

how is the GI protection?

-barrier function
- defense mechanism against pathogen invasion

15

what are the two parts of the extrinsic system?

-nerves (PS;S)
-extrinsic hormanal

16

what are the 4 parts to intrinsic systems?

-intrinsic hormonal
-immune control
-trophic effects
-nerves (ENS)

17

what does the "autonomy of the GI system" mean?

that the GI system is self-regulating

18

what intrinsically regulates the GI system ?

enteric nervous system
-neurogenic control of both secretion and GI motility

19

what are the three components to the ANS?

PS, S, ENS

20

how is the ENS modulated?

inputs from the extrinsic PS and S components

21

what is the submucosal plexus, what is the name of one, and where is it located?

-secretions and local blood flow
-Meissner's plexus
located in the submucosal layer

22

what is the myenteric plexus, what is the name of one, and where is it located?

-muscle contraction and motility
-Auerbach;s plexus
-located between the circular and longitudinal muscles layers

23

what are two properties of the ENS neurons?

they have collaterals and varicosities

24

what is the input for chemoreceptors?

luminal chemical conditions

25

what is the input for mechanoreceptors

distension within muscle layers

26

what are the output targets for excitatory neurons (e.g ACh, Sustance P)

glands: secretion (or not)

27

what are the output targets for inhibitory neurons (e.g. NO, VIP)

Muscle layers: contraction/relaxation

28

what extrinsic components of the parasympathetic NS act on the GI?

-vagus n
-pelvic n
- pre-ganglionic
- stimulatory***
-ACh (cholinergic

29

what extrinsic components of the sympathetic NS act on the GI?

-splanchnic n
- primarily post-ganglionic
- inhibitory
-norepi (adrenergic)

30

what NT does the ENS use?

NO and VIP

31

parasympathetic neurons (stimulate/inhibit) motility?

stimulate

32

sympathetic neurons (stimulate/inhibit) motility?

inhibit

33

can the sympathetic NS override the PS influence on the GI tract?

YES

34

where do the PS fibers synapse?

on the ENS cell bodies