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Flashcards in musch 1 Deck (24):
1

what are the 3 methods of oxygen and nutrients to tissue?

1. neural
2. mechanical
3. hormonal mechanism

2

what does a Swan-Gantz catheter measure?

pulmonary wedge pressure

3

Where is CvO2 sampled from?

only the pulmonary artery

4

Where is the CasO2 sampled from?

sampled from any artery except the pulmonary artery

5

Qrv ____ Qlv

Qrv = Qlv (equal output)

6

HRxSVrv _____ HRxSVlv

HRxSVrv = HRxSVlv (equal stroke volume)

7

what is the RV?

volume pump (thin wall)

8

what is the LV?

pressure pump (thick wall)

9

is cardiac muscle voluntary or involuntary?

involuntary

10

are cardiac muscle cells shorter or longer than skeletal muscles cells?

shorter

11

do cardiac muscle cells have more or less mitochondria than skeletal muscle cells?

more

12

does preload have a positive or negative effect on stroke volume?

positive effect

13

does contractility have a positive or negative effect on stroke volume?

positive effect

14

does afterload have a positive or negative effect on stroke volume?

negative effect

15

end - diastolic volume is a measure of what?

preload

16

end - diastolic volume is dependent on what?

LVEDP and venous return

17

stimulating a beta-1 receptor does what to HR?

increases HR

18

stimulating a muscarinic receptor does what to HR?

decreases HR

19

what is the neurotransmitter for the sympathetic nervous system?

norepinephrine

20

what is the neurotransmitter for the parasympathetic nervous system?

acetylcholine

21

do the pacemaker cells of the heart contract?

no

22

effects of norepi and epi on ventricular chromotropic state

beta-1 receptor -> increases CAMP ->protein kinase
1. funny channel opens: increase Na+ influx
2. calcium channel opens: increase Ca++ influx
3. increases the rate of depolarization

23

effects of Ach on ventricular chromotropic state

muscarinic receptor -> increase K+ permeability and decrease Ca++ permeability -> decreases rate of depolarization

24

what initially raises heart rate during exercise?

parasympathetic withdrawal