Flashcards in Gender Inequality Deck (59)
How did Bell Hooks define feminism?
“Simply put, feminist is a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression.”
Is the work of feminism ever done?
No, the work does not end with the fight for equality of opportunity within the existing patriarchal structure.
What is at the core of contemporary feminist struggle?
Challenging and dismantling patriarchy.
Social construction. The social definitions and expectations associated with being female or male (or transgender).
Biology. A person’s biological classification as male or female (or intersex).
Between 1 and 1500 - 2000 births require a specialist to...
Belief that there are innate psychological, behavioural, or intellectual differences between females and males.
Differences in sexism imply...
The superiority of one group and the inferiority of another leads to discrimination.
Double (Triple, Multiple) Jeopardy
Disadvantages associated with being a member of 2 or more minority groups.
Give an example of a triple jeopardy.
A disabled immigrant woman.
Give an example of how Canadian society does not treat women and men equally.
- Women have lower incomes.
- Hold fewer prestigious jobs.
- Remain concentrated in traditionally female-dominated occupations.
According to the SI perspective, how does the Socialization Process play a role?
- Gender assignment at birth.
- Even for intersex babies.
- Taught the meanings associated with being feminine and masculine.
How does symbolic interaction lead to the lifelong process of learning gender roles?
Learn through the messages others send us to reaffirm or challenge our gender performances.
The social structures and interaction processes that maintain male dominance and female subordination.
Patriarchy is just about men. True or false?
False, it is about the system that we agree to, and participate in.
How does the feminist perspective look at gender inequality?
Challenges role allocation on gender lines.
According to the feminist perspective, gender roles result from...
Learning social expectations of the worlds into which we are born.
The feminist perspective may say everything we think about sex...
May be the effect of culture more than of biology.
What perspective says that gender is necessary and beneficial?
What does the feminist perspective say about gender?
It contributes to women's subordination of men.
What are the waves of feminism?
1. First Wave.
2. Second Wave.
3. Third Wave.
When did First Wave feminism occur?
Late 1880's to mid 1990's.
First wave feminism also played into...
Suffrage/voting and abolition.
First Wave Feminism
Came out of religious/moral movements.
When did Second Wave Feminism end?
It is still going on today.
When did Second Wave Feminism happen?
1960's - early 1990's.
Second Wave Feminism
Out of the civil rights/gay rights movement. Education and work was still primarily while middle class.
Third Wave Feminism
Acceptance and exploration of different races, genders, sexualities, abilities — complexity, intersectionality.
When did Third Wave Feminism happen?
What were the downfalls of Second Wave Feminism?
Too liberal, focused on work and income.
What does the Queer Theory Perspective say about gender inequality?
Challenges those approaches to gender that says there can be only two genders - oppositional forms.
According to the Queer Theory Perspective, what are three characteristics of gender?
Who said gender is performed?
What does it mean when we say that "gender is performed?"
The behaviour has to be learned and constantly repeated if one is to maintain an identity.
What is a synonym for Structural Sexism?
What is a synonym for Institutional Sexism?
There is a structural differentiation between men and women.
The ways in which the organization of society subordinates individuals and groups based on their sex classification.
Gender stratification is the result of gender differences in...
- Educational attainment.
- Income levels.
- Political involvement.
For every $1 a man earns, a woman doing the same job receives...
What is the strongest perspective of why women earn less than men for the same trust?
Misogyny (the distrust of women).
Human Capital Hypothesis
Women are paid less due to the difference in women’s levels of education, skills, training, and experience.
Women are paid less because the work they do is socially defined as less allocate than that of men.
Which income gap hypothesis is given more support?
Does the pay equity act solve comparable worth?
No, the earnings gap persists.
The earnings gap.
Occupational Sex Segregation
The concentration of women in certain occupations and men in other occupations.
Pink Collar Jobs
Typically in service industry, few benefits, low prestige, mostly held by women.
Socially created barrier prevents women and minorities from being promoted.
The ways in which the culture of society perpetuates the subordination of an individual or group because of the sex classification of that individual or group.
Women still contribute more hours to homelier than men.
Even if it was different for you, on average, you are in the minority.
Feminization of Poverty
Women represent disproportionate percentages of the world’s poor.
Women are more likely to suffer from depression, and there are fewer social outlets to release stress. Low self-esteem, satisfaction.
Masculinity, expressing emotions. Gender role for men.
How do men suffer from gender role socialization?
Cultural pressures to succeed; “boy’s code” — masculinity, expressing emotions.
Conflict in Relationships
Second shift, frustration with and rejection of stereotypical roles, violence in intimate relationships.
What are some strageties for action?
- Men's movement.
- Public policy.