Flashcards in Crime and Violence Deck (50):
What is a popular homicide myth in Canada?
Homicide is a random act with no social determinants at play.
What is the reality of those who are murdered in Canada?
83% knew their attackers.
What are the statistics surrounding victims of murder, and who they are killed by?
- Less than 33% family.
- 33% acquaintance.
- 12% killed by someone known to them through criminal activities.
- Behaviour that strays from the norm.
- Ranges from folkways to serious infringement of laws.
The violation of norms that are written into law.
Formal rules that define what society’s members can and cannot do.
Sociological theories of crime and violence emphasizes the role of ___ factors in criminal behaviour and...
Criminal, societal responses.
Which is positive and which is negative? Crime and deviance.
Both can be positive and negative.
What does the conflict perspective say about crime and deviance?
Deviance is inevitable whenever two groups have differing degrees of power.
The conflict perspective says that there is a correlation between crime rates and ___.
Alienation in the conflict perspective says that people feel like...
They aren't a productive member of society, and leads to powerlessness and frustration.
According to the conflict perspective, crime is defined by ___ ___ ___, and they reflect their interests.
The ruling class.
According to the conflict perspective, law enforcement and sanctions are applied differentially. Give an example.
Female sex workers vs. male johns.
What does the structural-functionalist theory say about crime?
Crime can be functional for society.
How can crime be functional for society?
- Strengthen group cohesion and lead to social change.
- Broken Windows Theory.
3 main SF theories of crime and violence examine...
3 main SF theories of crime and violence.
1. Strain Theory.
2. Sub-Cultural Theory.
3. Control Theory.
Who thought of Strain Theory
Strain Theory is based on...
State of formlessness - norms and values are weak or unclear.
Social structure can limit legitimate means of acquiring cultural goals.
According to strain theory, individuals adapt to the inconsistency between ___ and ___.
Which of Merton's 5 types of adaptations leads to crime?
Innovation accepts/rejects what?
Accepts cultural goals, but rejects institutional means.
Certain sub-cultural groups (such as youth gangs) have values, norms, and attitudes that contribute to crime.
Who came up with Control Theory?
Social bonds between individuals and society (societal solidarity) prevent some individuals from violating social norms.
Control Theory explains why...
Some people don't get involved in crime.
What are 4 elements of social bonds that can lead to people not becoming involved in crime?
1. Attachment to significant other.
2. Commitment to conventional goals.
3. Involvement in conventional activities.
4. Belief in moral standards of society.
In Control Theory, research evidence shows that the greater the social bonds...
The lower the probability of criminal behaviour.
Subordinate position of which women in the social structure can influence criminal behaviour of women.
Feminist theories of crime look at differences between gender experiences and realities with ___ central to the process.
What are the two theories symbolic interactionist perspectives utilize in explaining crime?
1. Labelling Theory.
2. Differential Association Theory.
Labelling theory is concerned with what effects?
- Effects of labelling on the definition of a social problem.
- Impacts on self-concept and behaviour.
Labelling theory distinguishes between ___ and ___ deviance.
Before a person is caught and labelled.
Results from being caught and labelled.
Give an example of how the labelling theory can be applied.
Lisa Neve being labelled as a dangerous offender and getting an indefinite sentence.
Lisa Neve said...
"I wasn't born bad, but I was expected to be bad, so I was."
What are some effects of labels?
- Dominate social identity.
- Become the master status.
- Adoption of deviant self-concept.
Who came up with differential association theory?
Individuals learn values and attitudes associated with crime in prison from others. What theory is this?
Differential association theory.
Differential Association Theory
Examine the ways people, through simple association, are socialized into their criminal environment, and reproduce the prevailing behaviour.
How does differential association theory make its case? (2 factors)
- People are social and imitate one another - gain acceptance and approval.
- Social organization, not social disorganization.
Under the differential association theory, prisons are seen as...
Graduate schools of crime.
___ people are 4% of the Canadian population, but 23% of the federal inmate population.
Incarceration rate of Aboriginals is __ times higher than non-Aboriginal people.
There are some people that claim that random checks by police can lead to ___ profiling.
What are some strategies for action to deter crime?
- Looking at at-risk youths.
- Community programs.
- Changing how we police.
- Criminal justice policy.