Flashcards in Chapter 4: Crime and Violence Deck (27):
Criminal activity that occurs across one or more international borders. Can include movement of exploitative images and texts via the internet.
The violation of norms that are written into law.
Routine Activity Theory
3 conditions increase opportunity for crime: Motivated offender, a suitable target, and a lack of capable guardianship.
A theory that argues that when legitimate means of acquiring culturally defined goals are limited by the structure of the society, the resulting strain mat lead to crime or other deviance.
A theory that argues that certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence.
A theory that argues that a strong social bond between a person and society constrains some individuals from violating norms.
A SI theory that is concerned with the effects of labelling on the definition of a social problem, and with the effects of labelling on self-concept and behaviour of individuals.
Deviant behaviour committed before a person is caught and labelled as an offender.
Deviance that results from being caught and labelled.
A theory developed by Edwin Sutherland that holds that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behaviour.
Conventional (Street) Crime
Traditional illegal behaviour that most people think of as crime, including such offences as murder, sexual assault, assault, armed robbery, break and enter, and theft.
Rape that is committed by someone known to the victim.
A rape committed by a stranger with the use of a weapon resulting in serious bodily injury.
An illegal activity, such as prostitution or drug abuse, that has no complaining party; also called "vice crime."
Criminal activity conducted by members of a hierarchically arranged structure devoted primarily to making money through illegal means.
Both the fraudulent practices that may take place in the course of conducting a business (such as tax evasion and extortion) and also behaviour that is not illegal, but may be immoral and cause significant harm to society. Such business behaviours may be deliberate or may arise from indifference to the well-being of others.
The revival of classical liberalism that has occurred since the 1980's. Those who espouse this model for economic and political organization and policy advocate individual rights over group rights, reduction of state powers, and an increased liberalization of free-market capitalism. According to this view, when the market is fee to set its own limits, then individual merit will be properly rewarded and everyone will benefit from increased growth in capital and industrial production.
The production of unsafe products and the failure of corporations to provide safe working environment for their employees.
The label for deaths as a result of unsafe consumer products.
Any violation of the law in which a computer is the target or means of criminal activity.
When police, community, and local governance structures, including politicians and religious and educational institutions, work together to prevent crime at local levels. Not intended to address large-scale concerns, but to help citizens prevent their neighbourhoods from becoming targets for crimes.
The use of harm of the threat of harm to prevent unwanted behaviours.
The removal of a person from larger society through lifetime imprisonment. By stripping the person of a meaningful position within society, lifetime imprisonment removes from that person an identity and status in the larger world. The prisoner is ejected from the relationship circles necessary for the maintenance of a personal identity.
A criminal justice philosophy that views the primary purpose of the CJS as changing the offender through programs such as education and job training, individual and group therapy, substance abuse counselling, and behaviour modification.
A criminal justice philosophy that views the primary purpose of the CJS as preventing offenders from committing further crimes against the public by putting them in prison.
A philosophy primarily concerned with reconciling conflict between the offender, the community, and the victim.