Flashcards in Sexualities Deck (45):
Identification of individuals as heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual, or asexual based on their emotional and sexual attractions, relationships, self-identity and lifestyle.
Sexual orientation (including desires, attractions, and practices) can...
Vary over our lifetime.
One’s personal experience of one’s own gender.
Gender identity can be:
- Same as assigned at birth.
- Opposite to sex assigned at birth.
- Other than man or woman.
- Such as genderqueer or non-binary.
Gender identity is static. True or false?
How we express our gender.
How do we express our gender?
Masculine, androgynous, feminine.
People who do not fit neatly into either the male or female category, or whose behaviour is not congruent with the rules and expectations for which their sex in the society in which they live.
Set of expectations concerning behaviours and attitudes that relates to being male and female.
Poet that identifies as genderqueer. Challenges gender roles.
Belief that heterosexuality is natural and normal, whereas homosexuality is not.
Asserts that heterosexuality is the only sexual orientation (the norm).
___ involves alignment of biological sex, sexuality, gender identity, and gender roles.
Heterosexism and heteronormativity lays the foundation for...
Prejudice (homophobia) and discrimination (crime).
The Heterosexual Questionnaire
- What and how did you decide you were heterosexual?
- Is it a phrase that you'll grow out of?
The heterosexual questionnaire questions...
Replaces sexuality with race.
Negative attitudes and emotions toward homosexuality.
What is associated with less homophobia?
Positive contact with LGBT + university education associated with less homophobia.
Cultural origins of homophobia:
- Marital and procreative bias.
- Concern about HIV and AIDS.
- Threat to the power of the majority.
- Rigid gender roles.
- Psychiatric labelling.
- Myths and negative stereotypes.
How can homophobia affect heterosexuals?
How does conformity affect heterosexuals?
- Restricts self-expression and intimacy in same sex friendships.
- Greater conformity to gender roles.
- Homo-negativity encourages early sexual activity or need to prove sexuality.
How does sanctions affect heterosexuals?
Can become victims of anti-gay harassment and physical violence if accused of being gay.
Sociological theories of sexual orientation do not explain the cause. Rather, they...
Help explain societal reactions and contexts.
- Focus on meanings, and how these meanings are socially constructed.
- LGBT labels can become master status.
- Most significant in a person’s social identity.
- Issues related to sexuality are central to women’s lives.
- Sexuality, and how sex is organized, varies — not universally identical.
Feminist perspective focuses on the principle of ___ ___.
Principle of Anti-Essentialism
Refusal of simplistic biological explanations for complex social relations, motivations, behaviours, and identifications.
The principal of anti-essentialism says that our ___ and ___ contexts shape who we are.
The belief that social context provides the method and meaning for both sexuality and gendered behaviours, roles, and relationships.
Under Queer Theory, what did Michel Foucault talk about?
Science, law, and medicine structure and impose meanings of sexuality.
Under Queer Theory, what did Judith Butler say?
Gender based on performance and place.
Butler looked at gender based on ___ and ___.
Performance and place.
Social study of sexualities that combines observations of feminist and queer theories.
How does critical theory combine observations of feminist and queer theories?
- The way things are is not the way things have to be.
- Oppressive functions can be challenged.
- Claims to be “the naturalness” of one form of sexuality operate to benefit a tiny minority.
Acts of violence motivated by prejudice.
How is hate crime distinct from other crimes?
Inflicts disproportionate harm. Exceeds harm inflicted on individuals: has goal to intimidate and/or injure an entire community.
Hate crime inflicts disproportionate harm. Why?
- Attacks a core feature of a victim’s identity.
- Impacts entire community; makes others feel fear.
- Injuries and damages more severe than in other crimes.
Why are homosexual people at risk of being victimized?
Victimization that occurs not as a direct result of the crime, but through the response of institutions and individuals to the victim.
Where is there discrimination against sexual-orientation minorities?
In workplace, in family relationships.
How is there discrimination against sexual-orientation minorities in the workplace?
- Increasing acceptance; depends on occupation (less for teachers, clergy).
- Discrimination based on sexual orientation prohibited (if not explicitly, then based on human rights legislation).
How is there discrimination against sexual-orientation minorities in family relationships?
- Same sex marriage.
- Child custody visitation, adoption.