Flashcards in Illness and Health Care Deck (56):
Sample size is one, where you personalize things.
What are the 4 main concerns of sociologists?
- Impact of social forces.
- Distribution of effects.
- Impact on individuals.
- Health care questions.
Health care from a structural-functionalist perspective.
Illness, health, and health care affect and are affected by changes in other aspects of social life
Health Care System according to a Structural-Functionalist perspective.
An institution that functions to maintain the well-being of societal member and of the social system as a whole.
Illness according to a Structural-Functionalist perspective.
A dysfunctional condition (deviance) that interferes with people performing needed social roles (societal functioning).
Anything outside of societal norms are considered ___ according to a Structural-Functionalist perspective.
Illness is ___ according to a Structural-Functionalist perspective.
According to a Structural-Functionalist perspective, what did Talcott Parsons say about the ill?
The ill adopt a Sick Role.
Sick Role according to a Structural-Functionalist perspective.
Society allows them to temporarily withdraw while they recuperate.
Sick Role is ___ deviance according to a Structural-Functionalist perspective.
What is the expectation of the Sick Role according to a Structural-Functionalist perspective?
Person will see medical advice, adhere to prescribed regimen, and return to normal roles as soon as possible.
What did Ivan Emke encourage?
Responsibilization in an increasingly neo-liberal system.
Who put the responsibility on individuals to limit the demands on the health care system?
___ ___ disputed the presence of a "Sick Role."
How does the Symbolic Interactionist Perspective look at health care?
How do meanings, definitions, and labels influence health? How are they learned through interaction with others and through media messages and portrayals?
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective says that illness and disease are ___ definitions.
What are some stigmatizing effects of being labelled sick or mentally ill?
- Condition may become a person's master status.
- Label may lead to prejudice, discrimination, violence.
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective says that there is a trend towards ___ in health care.
Karl Marx wants to ___ the world, not just to interpret the world.
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well being.
There is a need to consider social structure and ___.
Concerned with the notion of epic theatre and how to force the audience to become part of play. Asked what social conditions are that contribute to poor health.
Who was concerned with the social determinants of health?
Irving Zola, Bertolt Brecht.
Social Determinants of Health
The conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, including the health system.
Social Determinants of Health are shaped by...
The distribution of money, power, and resources.
There is a trend towards ___.
The tendency to define negatively defined behaviours as medical problems in need of medical intervention.
Give an example of medicalization.
Shyness or female sexual dysfunction is treated as a medical problem.
SDH mostly responsible for health ___.
The unfair and avoidable differences in health status.
Do individual lifestyle factors play a role in health?
Yes, but there are other social factors to think about.
The biomedical model of health just aims to treat...
Medical problems on an individual basis.
What does the conflict perspective say about health care?
Heatlh, health care, and research are affected by wealth, status, power, or the lack thereof.
According to the conflict perspective, how is medicine like a commodity?
It can be produced and sold - people struggle over scarce resources (medical resources).
In the conflict perspective, ___ motive underlies illness, injury, and death. Is related to working conditions and dangerous consumer products.
Producing things that may not be beneficial, and may in fact harm people.
Dr. Devra Davis
Epidemiologist that argues that why would corporations want to get rid of cancer when they can profit from it? Selling hope for too long.
According to the feminist perspective, health care is understood through understanding that...
Gender is central to social life (not peripheral).
The feminist perspective is also tied to...
Class, race, ethnicity, and age.
Which is correct? Social class or socio-economic status?
Combination of economic and social circumstances that shape one’s experiences as a member of a given class.
SES looks at...
Occupation, education, income, wealth.
What is SES's impact on health?
Many women must "double shift."
Women have greater responsibility for home life, as well as bringing in an income.
What is an effect of the Double Shift?
Increased rate of heart problems.
Women's health is defined and understood on the basis of...
A male-centric model and male norms.
What are 4 social factors associated with health and illness?
- Social class and poverty.
- Racial and ethnic minority status.
What are some determinants of mental health?
- History of abuse.
- Emotional trauma.
- Increased life expectancy.
- War and conflict.
What is the world's leading health problem?
What are some things associated with poverty?
- Unsanitary living conditions.
- Hazardous working conditions.
- Lack of access to medical care.
- Inadequate nutrition.
What is low socioeconomic status associated with?
Increased risks of:
- Psychiatric conditions.
- Higher rates of mortality.
- Higher levels of stress.
What is education associated with?
- Higher rates of health problems and mortality.
- Less educated are more likely to engage in health-risk behaviours, such as smoking and heavy drinking.
- Less educated women:
- Less likely to seek prenatal care.
- More likely to smoke during pregnancy.
What is gender associated with?
- Discrimination and violence against women/girls produce adverse health effects.
- Violence against women - major public health concern.
- Currently in Canada.
- Women live longer than men.
- Higher rates of illness and disability.
- Men are less likely to seek medical care. Why?
What do racial and ethnic minority status indicate?
Inadequate income, welfare, substandard housing conditions, stress on mental health, and well-being evident in people’s lives.
How is the situation of Aboriginal peoples indicative of a social problem?
- Life expectancy: 7-8 years shorter than non-Aboriginal Canadians.
- Infant mortality: 2x higher.
- Accidental death and injury among children: 4x higher.