Chapter 7: Gender Inequality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Gender Inequality Deck (19)


The belief that there are innate psychological, behavioural, or intellectual differences between females and males and that the differences connote the superiority of one group and the inferiority of the other.



The social definitions and expectations associated with being male or fame.



A person;s biological classification as male or female.


Expressive Roles

The nurturing and emotionally supportive roles that women are generally socialized into.


Instrumental Roles

Task-oriented roles that males are generally socialized into.



The group of assumptions and demands that people fall into two opposite sexes that are reproductively oriented toward each other; as a bias, creates structures and institutions that privilege opposite-sex relations and deny full rights and freedoms and recognition to those engaged in same-sex relations.


Structural Sexism

The ways in which the organization of society, and specifically its institutions, subordinate individuals and groups based on their sex classification.


Devaluation Hypothesis

The hypothesis that argues women are paid less because the work they perform is socially defined as less valuable than the work performed by men.


Emotional Labour

Work traditionally performed by women in the role of providing care and concern for others, either professionally or in the home.


Human Capital Hypothesis

The hypothesis that female-male pay differences are a function of differences in women's and men's levels of education, skills, training, and work experience.


Comparable Worth

Tasks and jobs that are distinct but have equal value and utility in the workplace and economy.


Family Gap/Child Penalty

The income losses associated with women's responsibilities raising children. As a measure, it compares the earnings of women who have children with those who do not in the same age group, with equal educational and occupational attachments.


Occupational Sex Segregation

The concentration of women in certain occupations and of men in other occupations.


Pink-Collar Jobs

Jobs that offer few benefits, often have low prestige, and are disproportionately held by women.


Glass Ceiling

An invisible, socially created barrier that prevents women and other minorities from being promoted into top corporate positions.


Cultural Sexism

The ways in which the culture of society perpetuates the subordination of individuals based on their sex classification.


Gender Tourism

The recent tendency for definitions of masculinity and femininity to become less clear, resulting in individual exploration of the gender continuum.


Sexual Harassment

When an employer requires sexual favours in exchange for a promotion, salary increase, or any other employee benefit, or the existence of a hostile environment that unreasonably interferes with job performance, as in the case of sexually explicit remarks or insults being made to an employee.


Employment Equity

An attempt to ensure that there is a proportional number of designated target groups (for example, women, visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples, and people with disabilities) throughout all income and occupational levels at ratios that are consistent with the proportion of these groups within the local or regional workforce.