GI secretions/digestions [4] Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GI secretions/digestions [4] Deck (20):

What secretes Gastric acid?
What is GA and what does it do?
Is it passive or does it require E?

Secreted by parietal cells ( contains HCl and IF)

Kills bacteria
Begins protein digestion (denature prot + activates pepsinogen → pepsin)

E consumin processs (H+/K+ ATPase pumps across luminal surface against significant gradient)
- knows its getting E back via digestion


4 phases of gastric secretion

basal phase + 3 assoc w/ eating

1. interdigestive (basal) phase
2. cephalic phase
3. gastric phase
4. intestinal phase


interdigestive (basal) phase of gastric secretion

between meals, following circadian rhythm
- highest in the evening
- lowest in the morning prior to waking


Cephalic phase of gastric secretion

neuronal control
- vagus

1. release of ACh
2. trigger Histamine release from ECL cells
3. release of GRP form vagal and ENS
4. inhibition of somatostatin release form Delta cells

- 30% of acid secretions

(note: somatostatin a hormone secreted in the pancreas and pituitary gland that inhibits gastric secretion - so you inhibit an inhibitor)


gastric phase of gastric secretion

initially neural, followed by endocrine (gastrin) and neural reg.

1. Food enters stomach
2. distends gastric mucosa
3. activates vasovagalreflex + local ENS reflexes
4. partially digested proteins stimulate ANTRAL gastrin (G) cells
5. release gastrin (50-60% of total acid secretion)


Intestinal phase of gastric secretion

mostly endocrine (largely inhibitory, telling us 2 stop prod acid)

1. presence of aa and partially digested peptides in proximal small intestine
2. stimulate acid secretion by stimulating DUODENAL gastrin (G) cells to secrete gastrin (5-10% of total acid secretion)


How do parietal cell secretagogues induce acid secretion

ACH → M3 receptor → ↑ intracellular Ca2+
Histamine → H2 receptor → ↑ intracellular Ca2+
gastrin → CCK3 receptor → ↑cAMP

These receptors in the basolateral membrane of parietal cells, potentiate gastric acid secretion (on lumenal side) when stimulated concurrently
- one of the most E costly of any electrolyte transport process in body.
- Together, Ca2+ and cAMP activates protein kinases to phosphorylate H/K+ ATPase


Direct/Indirect pathway of stimulating parietal cells to secrete gastric acid

direct pathway: ACh, His, Gastrin directly stim parietal cell

Indirect pathway: " " stimulate enterochromaffin like (ECL) cells to result in secretion of His → acts on parietal cells


Mech of gastric acid generation + secretion.
Role of: K+, Cl/HCO3, carbonic anhydrase, H+K+ ATPase

1. H+ is actively transported across APICAL memb (←)
in exchange for K+ by H/K ATPase (→)
- when H+ moves out of cells (←) [HCO3-] in cells goes ↑

2. HCO3- is transported across BASOLATERAL memb (→)
in exchange for Cl- (←)

3. Cl- that accumulates is transported across APICAL memb (←←) by facilitated diff

4. H2O follows Cl-
- pH of venous blood leaving stomach is high (HCO3- transport, known as ALKALINE TIDE)

(NOTE: all of this depends on Na/K ATPase, creating electronegative gradient (inside more neg than outside)


How does mucous serve as a protective barrier?

mucous secreted by goblet cells and mucous neck of the gland → form unstirred gel layer in which H2O is trapped + serves as neutralization zone for acid to be neutralized when diffused in


Peptic ulcer disease risk factors

1. NSAIDs (block cox I → ↓ PG → ↓ mucous)
2. Tumors (ZE synd)
3. H. Pylori


First step of carbohydrate digestion takes place in the ______ with the enzyme ______.

Final step in carbohydrate digestion occurs at _____ for all dietary carbs

Mouth - amylase

enterocyte surface

(note that amylase digests digest starch polysacc α-1,4 bonds to sugars that eventually → glucose)


Digestion of proteins starts _______ from the enzyme, ______ and is completed in the ______ with the enzyme ______.

stomach - pepsin
small intestine - gastric, pancreatic, enterocyte brush border and cytoplasmic peptidases


Only monomeric _____ can be absorbed

(unlike proteins)


Fat digestion starts in the mouth with the enzyme ____.

It ends in the ______.

fat - lingual lipase



Brush border enzymes involved at enterocytes:
Maltase acts on _____ or _____ → _______
Isomaltase (SI) acts on ______ → _______
Lactase acts on ____ → _____+ _____
Sucrase acts on ____ → _____+ _____

Maltase: maltose or maltotriose → Glucose
Isomaltase (SI): alpha limit dextrin → Glucose
Lactase Lactose → Glucose + galactose
Sucrase: Sucrose → Glucose + fructose


Predict small int. and colonic consequences of a deficiency in brush border enzyme, lactase following dairy product consumption.

1. unabsorbed lactose will draw water into intestinal lumen → osmotic diarrhea

2. Gut bacterial flora metabolizes unabsorbed lactose → gas (H+, methane, CO2)


Apical, brush border, sugar monomer transporters of enterocytes
- regulates uptake of?

1. SGLT1: regulates uptake of glucose and galactose
2. GLUT5: regulates uptake of fructose
(moves from lumen INTO cell)

- both are Na+ dependent (goes in with Na+ - cotransport)


Basolateral, brush border, sugar monomer transporters of enterocytes
- regulates uptake of?

GLUT2: regulates glucose, galactose, and fructose
(moves OUT of cell into blood on basolateral side)

- not Na+ dependent


Which of the brush border transporters can operate in the setting of secretory diarrhea like in cholera?

Na+ and Glucose → into cell
Important in oral rehydration