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Flashcards in Dig sys Deck (32):
1

Going from the duodenum → ileum, what happens to:
lymphocyte + villi

More lymphocytes (peyers patches)
Villi get shorter
See more goblet sells (more mucus secreted)

2

1 Duct cells secrete
2 Acinar cells secrete

3 Islets of langerhans secrete
(endocrine portion)

1 NaHCO3

2 Digestive enzymes

3 Insulin, glucagon
- well vascularized (makes sense, H goes to blood)

(all in pancreas)

3

Chief cells secrete

parietal cells (fried egg) secrete

pepsinogen

HCl + IF
- targets for PPI

4

What type of cells do you expect to see in duodenum? What do they secrete

Brunners gland: secrete HCO3 to neutralize chyme.
longer villi than ileum
- only in duod
- also secrete mucin

Panneth cells (at bottom of crypts): secretes defensins, lysozymes, phospholipases

5

Enterocyte fxn

1. Enterokinase found at surface: activates trypsinogen
2. Lactase, maltase, sucrase: degrade dissacharides → monosaccharides
2. Uptake Monoglycerides and FA
- resynthesizes them to triglycerides and release by exocytosis
3. Reuptake bile salts in micelles
4. take up peptides + degrade them on route

5. Move IgA (opp direction towards villi than the rest)

6

What type of nervous system regulate a produce local gut motility? What fxn does the coordinated input from the CNS provide?

Intrinsic (enteric) NS outside of the CNS

Coordinated input from parasympathetic fibers and sympathetic fibers from the CNS allows
1. coordination of peristalsis
2. affect blood vessels and glands

7

structural properties of smooth muscle in the gut that contribute to its performance as a single functional unit

SM cells are held together by mechanical jxns that are connected to eachother via gap jxns (allowing cell-cell communication)
- innervated by autonomic nerves, capable of activating mult muscle cells

8

4 layers of GI tract

1. Mucosa
2. submucosa
3. muscularis externa
4. serosa/adventitia

9

What makes up the mucosa? Which section is innervated by the Messeiner Plexus?

Epithelium
Lamina propria
Muscularis mucosa
- this layer of SM that is the origin of glands
- keeps surface of epithelium clean
- innervated by Messeiner plexus

10

What makes up the submucosa? Which two places do submucosal glands only occur?

denser CT
large BVs
nerve plexus
lymphatic nodules
scattered lymphoid cells

- Esophagus (esophageal glands)
- Duodenum (Brunner's glands)

11

What makes up the muscularis externa? Fxn? Which nerve plexus is found between the two layers of m?

Inner circular smooth muscle
Outer longitudinal smooth muscle
Nerve plexus

- fxns in peristalsis and churning of lumen contents
- Auerbach's/Myenteric plexus

12

What makes up the serosa/adventitia?

Outer covering of squamous epithelial cells (mesothelium)
Connective tissue

13

How does digestive system protect itself from autodigestion?

Except for esophagus and anal regions:
GI tract is lined by mucous that protects inner layers of epi from harsh acidic states/enzymes
Also, pancrease secrete zymogens (inactive enzymes)

14

How does digestive system protect itself from pathogenic bacterial invasion?

1. Peyer's patch: immune surveillance of intestinal lumen + generation of immune response w/in mucosa
- macrophages, DCs, B+T cells are found here
2. M cells: cover Peyer's patches
- Ag uptake cells
- presents Ag to lymphocytes and macrophages

15

Why can reflux cause a burning sensation (heartburn) in the lower esophagus?

the esophagus lacks a thick mucous covering (it does have mucosa glands to give some lubrication)

16

Type of muscle seen at each level:
Upper 1/3 esophagus
Middle 1/3
Lower 1/3

Upper 1/3 : skeletal muscle
Middle 1/3: mix skeletal + SM
Lower 1/3: SM

17

normal histology of the esophagus including the epithelial transition at the junction with the stomach.

esophagus: stratified squamous epi, esophageal glands, thick muscularis mucosa

gastroesophageal jxn:
transition from stratified squamous → intestinal simple columnar

18

What do neuroendocrine cells in the gland region of the stomach secrete?

Gastrin
- help increase HCl release in stomach

19

Which part of the stomach secretes mucus?

cardia
fundus
pylorus

20

which part of the stomach secretes acid and peptic digestive products and mucus?

fundus (main body)

21

which part of the stomach has a large preponderance of endocrine cells that secrete gastrin?

pylorus

22

Name what they secrete:
A cells
D cells
E cells
G cells

A cells - glucAgon
D cells - somaDostaDin
E cells - sErotonin
G cells - Gastrin (in pyloric region)

- all are found in stomach and small intestine
- D and E are also found in large intestines

23

Ulceration are commonly due to _______.

Zollinger-Ellinson syndrome is due to ______

H. pylori infxn

Excessive secretion of gastrin → overproduction of HCl by parietal cells → inadequate neutralization in small intestin → duodenal ulcers

24

Which has the best developed plicae circularis?
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

Jejunum

(also has villi decreasing distally)

25

Which has the most goblet cells and lymphatic tissues?
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

Ileum
- need most protection/lube
- need good immune response 4 poo

26

98% of the pancreas is dedicated to (pick on) exocrine/endocrine fxn?

Exocrine

(it also contains islet of langherhans for glucagon + insulin)

27

Efferent fibers of the myenteric plexus innervate the ___

muscularis externa

28

Characteristics of the large intestine

smooth
lacks villi/plicae
numerous straight tubular glands/crypts
epithelial layer
- mucous prod
- absorptive
removal of H2O + salt
- [ ] fecal material

29

structure of intestinal villus and role in nutrient abs

Intestinal villi: contains loose lamina propria w/ small blood vessels and capillaries, lymphocytes, small lymphatic spaces (that join larger lymphatic vessel)

- nutrients taken up by capillaries will go to hepatic portal system

30

In the crypts of lieberkuhn, stem cells are found in the lower 1/3 of the crypt at the neck. What do they give rise to?

mucous cells
enterocytes
paneth cells

(remember that paneth cells have eosinophilic granules that contain defensins, lysozymes, and phospholipase)

31

2 enzymes synthesized by pancreas straight into active form

amylase
ribonuclease

32

Which part of the gut contains crypts of lieberkuhn?

duodenum
jejunum
ileum
colon