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Flashcards in Handout 1 Deck (29):
1

a ______ is a subset of a species that has a unique identifiable feature

strain
remember to put in the order of "genus species" in italics

2

size of bacterial cells?

small, range from .5-3 microns

3

size of eukaryotic cells?

greater than 5 microns
5-20

4

size of viruses?

so tiny! 5-300 nm

5

An ______ disease is a disease acquired from organisms in or on the body

endogenous

6

A. Gram staining differentiates between cells based on cell _____ structure

wall structure

7

what color do gram positive stain? gram negative?

remember, that gram positive is purple!
More "pep" in barney because he is positive. Gram negative has a thinner wall. like the positive purple dinosaur

8

what kind of acids do we find in the cell wall of gram positive bacteria?

techoic acids.
remember, again gram + = pep with techoic acids

9

LPS - lipoglycans an endotoxin are found in the outer membrane of gram ___ bacteria?

LPS! large molecules

10

____ includes capsules and slime layer. it's composed of polysaccharides?

glycocalyx
the role is for virulence

11

fimbrae vs. pili?

timbre are the sticking bristles
pili is the tube to transfer chromosomes. they have a role in adherence.

12

what is the tube called that transfers chromosomes? they also have a role in adherence.

PILI

13

Do gram + or gram - produce spores?

Gram +
Bacillus and Clostridium are the main genera.
spores are only for SURVIVAL. not reproduction.

14

what do spores contain?

chromosome, proteins and ribosomes + calcium boudn to dipicolinic acid. Thick keratin coat
very resistant to infeciton

15

what is the term for differentiating between strains of the same species using an antibody?

serotyping
antibodies recognize antigens on the surface of the bacteria

16

what metabolic pathway is this?
ANAEROBIC in cytoplasm – 6 carbon sugar (glucose) into two 3 carbon sugars (pyruvate) and reduced carrier molecules NADH – NET 2 ATP

glycolysis.

17

what if you don't have oxygen while you're using glycolysis?

you take the NADH end product and use them to make weird acids and alcohols- using ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION

18

if you have oxygen after glycolysis, what cycle do you use?

TCA cycle.
generates more NADH, FADH, and GTP
--electron transport chain

19

most bacteria have one chromosome that is ______(haploid or diploid) and packaged with polyamines like _____ rather than histones

haploid, spermine

20

bacterial genomes are organized in functional units called _____

operons

21

T/F?
bacteria may have extrchromosomal plasmids?

true

22

lac operon is an example of what kind of operon?

inducible
the inducer is allocates that binds and removes repressor.
sigma factors bind to the promotor and allow the polymerase to bind leading to the transcription and translation of genes

23

a _____ is a stretch of DNA where the repressor binds?

the operator!

24

where do you calculate the generation time with a bacterial growth curve?

exponential phase
stationary phase= plateu
decline when nutrients are out

25

transfer of DNA from one bacteria to another via pilus

conjugation
Japan sushi example!

26

bacteria taking up naked DNA from the environment

transformation

27

phage mediated DNA transfer

transduction

28

what kinds of genes are carried on a plasmid?

small self replicating pieces of DNA that code for non-essential proteins, F factor(what is the F Factor?)

29

what are jumping genes also called?

transposons!