Flashcards in Handout 1 Deck (29):
a ______ is a subset of a species that has a unique identifiable feature
remember to put in the order of "genus species" in italics
size of bacterial cells?
small, range from .5-3 microns
size of eukaryotic cells?
greater than 5 microns
size of viruses?
so tiny! 5-300 nm
An ______ disease is a disease acquired from organisms in or on the body
A. Gram staining differentiates between cells based on cell _____ structure
what color do gram positive stain? gram negative?
remember, that gram positive is purple!
More "pep" in barney because he is positive. Gram negative has a thinner wall. like the positive purple dinosaur
what kind of acids do we find in the cell wall of gram positive bacteria?
remember, again gram + = pep with techoic acids
LPS - lipoglycans an endotoxin are found in the outer membrane of gram ___ bacteria?
LPS! large molecules
____ includes capsules and slime layer. it's composed of polysaccharides?
the role is for virulence
fimbrae vs. pili?
timbre are the sticking bristles
pili is the tube to transfer chromosomes. they have a role in adherence.
what is the tube called that transfers chromosomes? they also have a role in adherence.
Do gram + or gram - produce spores?
Bacillus and Clostridium are the main genera.
spores are only for SURVIVAL. not reproduction.
what do spores contain?
chromosome, proteins and ribosomes + calcium boudn to dipicolinic acid. Thick keratin coat
very resistant to infeciton
what is the term for differentiating between strains of the same species using an antibody?
antibodies recognize antigens on the surface of the bacteria
what metabolic pathway is this?
ANAEROBIC in cytoplasm – 6 carbon sugar (glucose) into two 3 carbon sugars (pyruvate) and reduced carrier molecules NADH – NET 2 ATP
what if you don't have oxygen while you're using glycolysis?
you take the NADH end product and use them to make weird acids and alcohols- using ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION
if you have oxygen after glycolysis, what cycle do you use?
generates more NADH, FADH, and GTP
--electron transport chain
most bacteria have one chromosome that is ______(haploid or diploid) and packaged with polyamines like _____ rather than histones
bacterial genomes are organized in functional units called _____
bacteria may have extrchromosomal plasmids?
lac operon is an example of what kind of operon?
the inducer is allocates that binds and removes repressor.
sigma factors bind to the promotor and allow the polymerase to bind leading to the transcription and translation of genes
a _____ is a stretch of DNA where the repressor binds?
where do you calculate the generation time with a bacterial growth curve?
stationary phase= plateu
decline when nutrients are out
transfer of DNA from one bacteria to another via pilus
Japan sushi example!
bacteria taking up naked DNA from the environment
phage mediated DNA transfer
what kinds of genes are carried on a plasmid?
small self replicating pieces of DNA that code for non-essential proteins, F factor(what is the F Factor?)