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Flashcards in Handout 2 Deck (66):
1

does oxidation produce energy or require energy?

oxidation produces energy
reduction requires energy. the gain of electrons

2

what is another name for substrate level phosphorylation?

glycolysis

3

what is the net ATP production of ATP by substrate level phosphorylation (glycolysis)?

2 ATP

4

2 NAD+ are reduced to what in glycolysis?

reduced to NADH

5

what is the hexose monophosphate shunt AKA?

the Pentose phosphate pathway! PPP!

6

does the PPP work with or without glycolysis?

SIMULTANEOUSLY!
it allows the breakdown of pentoses. 1 ATP/ cycle

7

what does the PPP make?

it makes important intermediate pentoses that will be used in the synthesis of nucleic acids, glucose from CO2 in photosynthesis and amino acids.
examples in crude Bacillus subitlis, E. Coli, Enteroccus faecalis.

8

what is the pathway that does not run with glycolysis??

Entner Doudruff. Etner is a hipster and works without glycolysis. Per glucose, Etner makes 2 NADPH and 1 ATP. He's not incredibly effective.

9

what's an example of an organism that uses Etner Doudrouff?

Pseudomonas!
"fake" aka hipster

10

products of the Krebs cycle?

2 acetyl CoA
4 CO2
6 NADH
2 FADH2
2 ATP by substrate level

11

what drives the chemoosmotic generation of ATP

electrons- through the ETC
energy released when protons move along the gradient is used to make the ATP
34 molecules per glucose

12

what is the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration?

an inorganic substrate- other than oxygen. Usually Nitrate, sulfate and high energy end products are made.
AnEROBIC. INORGANIC.

13

what kind of molecule is used as the final electron acceptor in fermention?

organic!!!
think, fermentation like kombucha would be for the organic folks. makes very small amounts of ATP

14

What does fermentation supply for glycolysis?

NAD. small ATP yeiled

15

what can help with the ID of organisms?

look at the end products!

16

if the end product was lactic acid, what might be the organism?

lactic acid fermentation.
from streptococcus and lactobacillus.

17

2 molecules of pyruvic acid converted to two of acetaldehyde and two molecules of CO2. acetyl aldehyde then reduced to ethanol! example?

alcohol fermentation.
example is Saccharomyces!

18

what are heterolactic/heterofermentive organisms?

organisms that produce lactic acid as well as other acids or alcohols.

19

what are lipid oxidized to?

fatty acids and glycerol!
remember, it gives off energy in the process!

20

A. Detection of amino acid catabolizing enzymes involved in decarboxylation and dehydrogenation - example???

A. Detection of amino acid catabolizing enzymes involved in decarboxylation and dehydrogenation - Salmonella vs. E. coli – Salmonella produce hydrogen sulfide when they remove sulfur from amino acids

21

what kind of tubes could we use for the fermentation test?

DURHAM tubes! ID at species as well as strain level

22

what would the oxidase test tell us?

look at the ETC
oxidase test for confirmation. Neisseria Gonorrhaea is positive

23

autotrophs rely on what?

organic from CO2. they do not need organic carbon source

24

what is the energy source for Photoheterotrophs?

light is the source of energy, organic compounds, (alcohols, fatty acids,organic acids, and carobydrates) as carbon. green and purple non suffer bacteria

25

what are the most medically important microorganisms?

chemoheterotrophs!

26

amphibolic?

pathways that function in anabolism and catabolism

27

what is the study of occurrences, distribution, and the control of disease?

epidemiology

28

percent or proportion of population infected at one pointt in time?

prevalence

29

number of new cases over time, often per year. reported on a population basis. Often per 100,000 people?

incidence

30

what happens to incidence and prevalence as people live longer?

the incidence (new cases) will decline, but of course the prevalence may go up because people are living longer

31

number of deaths in a population?

mortality

32

incidence of death in the population?

morbidity

33

other disease in the same patient?

comorbidity

34

always present in the population, low morbidity or death rate

endemic

35

spread to multiple continents?

pandemic

36

ability of an organism to cause disease. may be used to describe fatality?

virulence

37

likelihood that infected person will have clinical symptoms?

pathogenicity

38

number of exposed patients who become ill?

infectiousness

39

who is the only reservoir for small pox and polio?

humans

40

what are the hardest reservoirs to control?

disease with inanimate reservoir. animals are difficult but humans are the easiest with vaccinations.

41

what period of the infectious disease has the most severe symptoms?

the period of illness.

42

what is the period of convalescence?

back to heatlh

43

do you have symptoms during goth incubation period?

no

44

what is the period where symptoms first appear?

prodromal period

45

a ____ is a person who is infected yet has no symptoms

carrier
HEP A is the big example.
Typhoid Mary also

46

indirect host transmission?

need a vector. like west nile, Rocky mountains fever, Yersenia, Lyme

47

____ epidemic shows a sudden increase in the number of cases?

common source.

48

which is faster? common source epidemic or host to host?

common source.
host to host is slower because it has to spread from PERSON TO PERSON

49

hospital based infections?

nosicomial

50

one organism benefits and the other is unaffected?

commensalism

51

one injured, other unaffected?

ammensalism

52

a ___ pathogen is never flora

strict

53

what organs should be free of microbes?

blood, brain, organs, bladder

54

sebum

antimicrobial part of skin
acidic pH is antimicrobial

55

defense of the skin?

physical barrier
sebum
acidic pH
flora

56

closed sac of water/air surrounded by epithelium?

cyst

57

cyst containing pus?

abscess

58

chronic inflammatory lesion that is walled off, has capillaries, and inflammatory cells?

granuloma

59

infection of the skin and connective tissue- swelling along the fascia- layers.

cellulitis

60

what enzymes do the tears contain

lysozome

61

trouble makers of eye?

conjunctivitis.

62

what enzymes does the respiratory tract have?

lactoferrin, lysozome, sIgA

63

what is the flora in the large intestine that can cause intra abdominal disease and UTIs?

E. COli

64

what is the most common cause of anaerobic intra-abdominal dais?

bacteriodes fragilis

65

pseudomembranous collitis?

C. Diff

66

what causes bacterial meningitus?

neisseria menigitidis
and haemophilis influenza