Flashcards in Handout 6 Deck (53):
what is the most important mechanism of how bacteria become antibiotic resistant?
passing R plasmids
other mechanisms include biofilm formation, phage genes for resistance, mutation, enzymes to modify the bugs, and metabolic pathways changes
where were antibiotics first isolated from?
bacteria and fungi
why are semi synthetic antibiotics useful?
they help increase the spectrum and decrease the breakdown.
______ agents can be used internally to prevent infections. Example is antibiotics
___ determines which drug will stop bacterial growth at the LOWEST concentration?
minimum inhibitory concentraiton
test drug susceptibility using agar diffusion
best guess ?
empirical- based on your evidence
what you would use as a dentist likely
antibiotic selected based on sensitivity
it's the rational antibiotic therapy. Uses rational approach!
kill the microbe but doesn't harm host?
what inhibitor stops the peptidoglycan linkage by inhibiting transpeptidases?
what are the examples of Beta Lactam cell wall synthesis inhibitors?
Beta-lactaMASE inhibitors (calvulanic acid)
-Carbapenems- imipendum, meropenem
Monobactams- AZtreonam, narrow spectrum and gram -. not widely used
what are the examples of the non beta lactic?
what part of the bacteria does the non beta lactic inhibit?
also cell wall synthesis like the beta lactam
what could you use if the bacteria have Beta-lactamase?
what attacks the cell wall of mycobacteria? two exmaples
you could use "isoniazid"
or cycloserine which is the second line against tuberculosis
*you could use nucleic acid synthesis "rifamycin"
what could you use on the skin that is effective against many gram positive organisms?
"Tracy" gram +
second line against mycobacterium tuberculosis (drug resistant) technically an oxazolidone because it inhibits protein synthesis?
**protein syntesis and ribo 30)
what are the 4 examples of non beta lactams?
example of cell membrane that attacks lipopeptides?
"DAP" the lipids with lip.
gram + only. drug resistant staph, strep, enterococci
what are the topical only that have a detergent action? for eye and skin infections?
Poly and her "topical drinks" the more she drinks the less she can "see" and her skin looks really cray
what are the nucleic acid sythensis inhibitors? they are narrow spectrum and inhibit DNA gyros/topioismerisa?
"Quin goes to the club to look at some fine DNA"
he inhabits the gyrase action though and he is narrow minded.
nalidixic acid. "dix"
what are the broad spectrum modified quinines? ciproflaxin and damage growing bone?
At the club, QUIN modifies his game by giving FLOWES while he is "cipin" on his juice!
again for nucleic acid sytnehsis
what is a hepatoticn used for mycobacterium tuberculosis?
"doc was into rif raf and had TB"
what do ahminoglycosides inhibit?
they're "mean" and bind to the ribosomes. They're the "MYSIN"- mycin. HIS sin because he ismean and binds to ribosomes.
ototocic and nephrotoxic
erythromycin is an example of what?
use when patient is penicillin allergic.
what does erythromycin bind to?
the Pro Ribosomes.
targets gram positive
what do we use DIFICID for?
MACROlides. works locally in GI for C DIFF
what are the two macrocodes?
Erythromicin and Difiid.
ERR body is Different.
example of a lincosamindes?
lincoln and CLindamysin
"pseudomembranous colitis risk" presidents and "fake"
what are broad spectrum and inhibit translation?
tetracycline. like a big broad cycle
what can we use for MRSA???
GLycyclines. tigecycline. broad spectrum.
oxaxolidone. syvok and sivesxtor. resistant infecitons
streptogamins=== gram post baceria, MRSA, and VRE
what do sulfonamides do?
stope FOLATE sytnehsis
when you smell suffer, you "foll" down
what is the oral form of penicillin?
PEN V. cuz you give oral to the V
what are some of the semisynthetic penicillins?
Amp-= broad- also works on gram neg
Amoxicillin- prophylaxis of infective endocarditis
what could you give patient for prophylaxis endocarditis?
what do we use polymyxin for?
externally for GRAM - infection (drinks cuz - and sad)
skin and eye infection.
neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, and not stable in the GI
"all related to POLY and her alcohol problem"
what is reserved for serious anaerobic infection? translation inhibitor?
president. inhbits the "translation" of important things.
anaerboic infeciton--- no air
what is the risk of Clindamycin?
risk is pesumembranous colts. it's a C Diff superinfeciotn.
risk of the president is FAKE colitis"
what are the risks of tetracycline use?
remember, it's a broad spectrum translation inbhitior.
would risk superinfection, hepatotoxicity, and may effect bone growth with DEVELOPING teeth
infection of hair follicles?
it's a boil! eew
deeper, sebaceous gland infection?
several furuncles merge?
superficial skin infection?
how does cutaneous S. aureus differ from staph food poisoning?
food poising form ENTEROTOXIN/exotocin
cutenous S. aureus is a colonization of skin
what are the exfoliative toxins of staph aureus?
ETA and ETB
what are the antigens that stimulate the T cells nonspecifically in staph aureus?
superantigens! A/B etc.
what are the 5 enzymes that staph aureus has?
-coagulase for clot formation
-catalase- H202 breakdown. all STAPH not STREP
-hyaluronidase- spreading in CT tissue
stayplokinse- fibrinolysin.- dissolve clots
what is the enzyme that helps staph aureus spread in CT?
what is the enzyme for staph aureus that raids in clot formation?
what is the enzyme is STAPH aureus that involves breakdown of H2o2?
catalase! not in STREP!
what is staphylokinase?
fibrinolysin- dissolves clots
what is the ID feature that causes scalded skin syndrome?