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Flashcards in Handout 6 Deck (53):
1

what is the most important mechanism of how bacteria become antibiotic resistant?

passing R plasmids
other mechanisms include biofilm formation, phage genes for resistance, mutation, enzymes to modify the bugs, and metabolic pathways changes

2

where were antibiotics first isolated from?

bacteria and fungi

3

why are semi synthetic antibiotics useful?

they help increase the spectrum and decrease the breakdown.

4

______ agents can be used internally to prevent infections. Example is antibiotics

chemotherapeutic agents

5

___ determines which drug will stop bacterial growth at the LOWEST concentration?

MIC
minimum inhibitory concentraiton

6

kirby baurer?

test drug susceptibility using agar diffusion

7

best guess ?

empirical- based on your evidence
what you would use as a dentist likely

8

antibiotic selected based on sensitivity

it's the rational antibiotic therapy. Uses rational approach!

9

kill the microbe but doesn't harm host?

selective toxicity

10

what inhibitor stops the peptidoglycan linkage by inhibiting transpeptidases?

beta lactam

11

what are the examples of Beta Lactam cell wall synthesis inhibitors?

-penicillins
-Cephalosporins
Beta-lactaMASE inhibitors (calvulanic acid)
-Carbapenems- imipendum, meropenem
Monobactams- AZtreonam, narrow spectrum and gram -. not widely used

12

what are the examples of the non beta lactic?

ISONiazid
Vancomyacin
bacitracin
Cycoserine

13

what part of the bacteria does the non beta lactic inhibit?

also cell wall synthesis like the beta lactam

14

what could you use if the bacteria have Beta-lactamase?

vancomycin

15

what attacks the cell wall of mycobacteria? two exmaples

you could use "isoniazid"
or cycloserine which is the second line against tuberculosis

*you could use nucleic acid synthesis "rifamycin"

16

what could you use on the skin that is effective against many gram positive organisms?

bacitracin
"Tracy" gram +
freckle skin

17

second line against mycobacterium tuberculosis (drug resistant) technically an oxazolidone because it inhibits protein synthesis?

cycloserine
**protein syntesis and ribo 30)

18

what are the 4 examples of non beta lactams?

Vancomyocin
bacitracin
cycloserine
isonazid

19

example of cell membrane that attacks lipopeptides?

daptomycin.
"DAP" the lipids with lip.
gram + only. drug resistant staph, strep, enterococci

20

what are the topical only that have a detergent action? for eye and skin infections?

POLYmycins!
Poly and her "topical drinks" the more she drinks the less she can "see" and her skin looks really cray

21

what are the nucleic acid sythensis inhibitors? they are narrow spectrum and inhibit DNA gyros/topioismerisa?

QUinolones!
"Quin goes to the club to look at some fine DNA"
he inhabits the gyrase action though and he is narrow minded.
nalidixic acid. "dix"

22

what are the broad spectrum modified quinines? ciproflaxin and damage growing bone?

At the club, QUIN modifies his game by giving FLOWES while he is "cipin" on his juice!
again for nucleic acid sytnehsis

23

what is a hepatoticn used for mycobacterium tuberculosis?

rifamycin
"doc was into rif raf and had TB"

24

what do ahminoglycosides inhibit?

translation.
they're "mean" and bind to the ribosomes. They're the "MYSIN"- mycin. HIS sin because he ismean and binds to ribosomes.
ototocic and nephrotoxic

25

erythromycin is an example of what?

macrolides!
use when patient is penicillin allergic.

26

what does erythromycin bind to?

the Pro Ribosomes.
targets gram positive

27

what do we use DIFICID for?

MACROlides. works locally in GI for C DIFF

28

what are the two macrocodes?

Erythromicin and Difiid.
ERR body is Different.

29

example of a lincosamindes?

#
lincoln and CLindamysin
"pseudomembranous colitis risk" presidents and "fake"

30

what are broad spectrum and inhibit translation?

tetracycline. like a big broad cycle

31

what can we use for MRSA???

GLycyclines. tigecycline. broad spectrum.
oxaxolidone. syvok and sivesxtor. resistant infecitons
streptogamins=== gram post baceria, MRSA, and VRE

32

what do sulfonamides do?

metabolic inhibitors
stope FOLATE sytnehsis
when you smell suffer, you "foll" down

33

what is the oral form of penicillin?

PEN V. cuz you give oral to the V

34

what are some of the semisynthetic penicillins?

methicilin- narrow
Amp-= broad- also works on gram neg
Amoxicillin- prophylaxis of infective endocarditis

35

what could you give patient for prophylaxis endocarditis?

amoxicillin

36

what do we use polymyxin for?

externally for GRAM - infection (drinks cuz - and sad)
skin and eye infection.
neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, and not stable in the GI
"all related to POLY and her alcohol problem"

37

what is reserved for serious anaerobic infection? translation inhibitor?

Clindamycin
president. inhbits the "translation" of important things.
anaerboic infeciton--- no air

38

what is the risk of Clindamycin?

risk is pesumembranous colts. it's a C Diff superinfeciotn.
risk of the president is FAKE colitis"

39

what are the risks of tetracycline use?

remember, it's a broad spectrum translation inbhitior.
would risk superinfection, hepatotoxicity, and may effect bone growth with DEVELOPING teeth

40

infection of hair follicles?

folliculitis
it's a boil! eew

41

deeper, sebaceous gland infection?

furuncle

42

several furuncles merge?

carbuncle

43

superficial skin infection?

impetigo

44

how does cutaneous S. aureus differ from staph food poisoning?

food poising form ENTEROTOXIN/exotocin
cutenous S. aureus is a colonization of skin

45

what are the exfoliative toxins of staph aureus?

ETA and ETB

46

what are the antigens that stimulate the T cells nonspecifically in staph aureus?

superantigens! A/B etc.

47

what are the 5 enzymes that staph aureus has?

-coagulase for clot formation
-catalase- H202 breakdown. all STAPH not STREP
-hyaluronidase- spreading in CT tissue
stayplokinse- fibrinolysin.- dissolve clots
penicillinase

48

what is the enzyme that helps staph aureus spread in CT?

hyaluronidase

49

what is the enzyme for staph aureus that raids in clot formation?

coagulase

50

what is the enzyme is STAPH aureus that involves breakdown of H2o2?

catalase! not in STREP!

51

what is staphylokinase?

fibrinolysin- dissolves clots

52

what is the ID feature that causes scalded skin syndrome?

exfoliative toxin!

53

difference between SSS and bullus impetigo?

both from staph.
bullus impetigo is local unlike SSS (it's systemic_