Flashcards in Who AM I? Deck (115):
My species are facultative anaerobic gram positive cocci in CLUSTERS that grow at 18-40 C
-normal flora of the skin
-reistant to drying
-have enzyme CATALASE
what species of staphylococcus are coagulase positive?
*coagulase is also produced by yersinia pestis
Toxins- food poisoning, scalded skin, toxic shock
SKIN- folliculitis, furuncle, carbuncle, impetigo
INTERNAL- bacteremia, endocarditis, osteomyeltiis, penumonia
*remember it's coagulase + and catalase+
The only staph that is COAGULASE +
this staphyloccus causes bacteremia, endocarditis, surgical wounds, UTI?
what staph causes UTI and other opportunistic infections
what staph causes arthritis, baceremia, endocarditis, and UTI?
what staph causes bacteremia, bone/joint, ednocardtitis, UTI wound?
what organisms might cause toxic shock?
staph aureus or strep
what organism causes the cutaneous infections?
follicultis, furuncle, carbuncle, wound infection and impetigo?
the following factors are part of my cell wall
-teichoic acids- helps ID the species and strain
the following are my cytolytic toxins:
alpha- cell lysis and tissue damage
beta-cell lysis, tissue destruction
delta-acts as a detergent on rbcs and other cells
what are the exfoliative toxins of staph aureus?
ETA and ETB
I am a species of staph, my pigment is gold, hemolysis is beta (clear) and coagulase positive?
I am a species of staph, my pigment is none-cream colored, hemolysis is gamma or alpha (none or incomplete) and I am coagulase negative.
found on the skin
what are the two organisms that cause toxic shock syndrome?
what organism causes osteomyeltihs. pain, redness, swelling, osteonecrosis because access cuts of the blood supply?
what are the two most prevalent species of coagulase - staph? they both infect prosthetic valves and are less common in native valves. They also infect catheters and joints?
S. lugdunesis, S. Epidermidis
I am a gram + COCCI, generally found in CHAINS. I am a facultative anaerobe and grow at 37 C and CATALASE NEGATIVE
what are the 3 viridian groups of strep? what is there hemolytic pattern?
strep mutans, mitas, and salivaras
they're all alpha which means partial clearing and they're green
I am an organism in the strep and do not have any lance field groups. My hemolytic pattern in alpha (green)
lancefield groping is A (GAS) and beta hemolytic pattern?
lancefield grouping is B and beta hemolytic pattern?
Group D, GAMMA hemolytic pattern?
many of the group D members have been moved to enterococcu
what disease might cause rheumatic fever as an after effect? cross reactivity in antibody?
My adhesins include Lipotichoic acid, M protein family, F protein.
what causes the most serious disease of the neonate? screen moms
S. Agalactiae is GBS
15% of colon cancer patients have this bug?
gram positive diplo-strepto-cocci
lung infections and pneumonia- can spread to sinuses, ear, and meninges.
capsule is HUGE and resists phagocytosis
facultatively anaerobic gram + cocci found in the gut.
formally called group D streptococcus.
bacteremia, UTI, abdominal abscess, diverticulitis, endocarditis,
salt and drying tolerant.
EXTREMELY DRUG RESISTANT!!!!
what are the gram + bacteria that produce spores?
bacillus and clostridium
what are the toxins that are involved with Bacillus anthraces?
3 toxins PA EF and LF and they're all on ONE plasmid. increases virulence on one plasmid
what used to be called "wool sorters disease" goat hair before weaponized anthrax.
this causes food poisoning and occasionally eye infections.
1. emetic form- intoxication, heat stable enterotoxin. rice is the most common source
2. diarrheal form- longer reaction time. infection NOT intoxication. common source is meat or veggies.
3. ocular form. less common.
what is the autoclave indicator organism?
aerobic or facultative anaerobic gram + rod (cocco-bacilli) these form "actin rockets"
these are gram + rods
-many are part of normal flora, respiratory tract, GI, Urogenital tracts and skin.
-can be opportunistic
-causes respiratory disease- pseudo membrane in throat
-cardiac and nuerologic complicaitons for AB exotoxin
what kind of organism is associated with diphtheria toxin?
B- binds to the cell- specific for heart and nerve cells
A goes in and causes damage by stopping translation
these are gram + rods MOSTLY ANAEROBIC. All form spores!
1. found in soil, sewage, GI of humans and animals
2.survive harsh conditions with spores
3. histolytic toxins, enterotoxins, and neurotoxins
1. wound infection/ gas gangrene or gastroenteritis depending on site.
2. wound infection is more severe than gastroentteritis- necrosis, myonecrosis, ischemia
3. treat with wound care and penicillin
4. high mortality for wound infections because it has over 12 toxins!!!!
what causes wound infections- fatal in newborns when umbilical
this diseases causes tetanus
2. it's found in the soil and GI tracts of humans and animals.
1. causes food poisoning, wound botulism, and infant botulism
2. exotoxins are neurotoxins- the most potent toxins known!
**infant botulism- spores in honey for example. infants do not have normal GI flora.
-component of the normal flora for 5% of the population
-causes pseudomembranous colitis- clindamycin is a cause because it wipes out normal flora
-treat by stoping antibiotics and stay hydrated.
-organism that was originally classified as fungi because of the branching appearance
-it's gram + AEROBE that is related to mycobacterium
-immunocompromised patients are at risk for bronchopulmonary disease and cutaneous infection.
-found in the gingival pockets with actinomyces but the role is unknown
-treat with wound care and sulfonamide
this is a gram positive, rod shaped aerotolerant anaerobe found in the mouth, stomach, intestines and genitourinary trac.t
-ROLE in dental caries because it is acidogenic and acidouric
-important in pit and fissure caries-
-it's a LATE colonizer after s. mutans
this is a gram positive facultative anaerobe or strict anaerobe
-may have role in caries at the enamel/dentin surface
-may often see post srugical- after craniofacial surgery on the lower jaw. it's unique because of the hyphae-
-use acid fast stain
-clincial diagnosis is the PPD test (Mantoux test) newer quantiferon TB gold test
-damage is often from your own immune response- forming granulomas
what kind of infection of mycobacterium infield the Ghon's complex?
primary. droplet/aerosolized transmission. taken up my macrophages. inflammation and tissue destruction
what kind of infection of mycobacterium happens after reactivation of infection- pulmonary TB or military TB. granulomas, inflammation, chronic fever, night sweats, weight loss, cough
-most severe form is called "hansen's disease"
midler form of leprosy
-hypo-pigmented skin lesions
pulmonary mycobacterium disease or disseminated disease in immunocompromised individuals
what 3 organisms post the most danger for endotoxic shock?
blood infection with signal, Neisseria, and E. Coli
who are the lactose fermenters of the enterobacteriaceae family?
the rapid fermenters
Escheria, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, and Serratia
the slow or non fermenters are proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia
what are the two big ways that enterobacteria can be classified?
metabolic characteristics= are they rapid or slow fermenters?
and their resistance to bile salts
gram negative faculative anaerobe rod with flagella that is normal gut flora. causes GI problems. most frequently associated with UTI.
toxins include pili, entertoxins, endotoxins, SHIGA toxins
gram negative faculative anaerobe that si found in animals and animal products.
it's transmitted from host to host fecal/oral route by contaminated food and water.
causes enteritis and systemic infections.
AKA typhoid fever
-most serious in the genus Salmonella-severe diarrhea
-asymptomatic carriers- bug in gallbladder and shed to intestines
-vaccines for travelers and the military- SHORT TERM PROTECTION
-poultry and eggs that aren't cooked
-milder than salmonella typhi
-toxins- enterotoxins, cytotoxin, type III secretion system
-viruelnce is toxins and finbriae- survive intracellularly
-gram negative facultatively anaerobic non motile rod spread by fecal oral route
-all cause shigellosis-gastroenteritis
-infects LARGE INTESTINE!
-endotoxin, shiga toxins, plasmids, similar to Listeria in their escape vacuole. divide in cell and move cell to cell
what Shigella is the most severe?
which SHhigella is in the US?
which shigella is in developing countries?
-gram negative faculativaliy anaerboci rods that cause ZOONOTIC disease
-concern for use as a bioweapon- CDC category A
-rodents are the reservoir, fleas the vector
-swelling in lymph nodes- bubo
-virulence factors cause coagulation, hemorrhage and necrosis.
75% mortality if not treated!
-infection in lungs- person to person spread
-90% mortality if untreated
-has capusles, ability to grow in macrophages, coagulase, and endotoxin
pneumonic plague-still Y. Pestis
-reservoirs are pigs, rodents, rabbits, horses, sheep, cattle, cats, dogs
-acute gastroenteritis- may mistake for appendicitis
-invade the small intestine and survive intracellularly in pahgocytes
strain of yersenia
-reservoirs are dogs, cats, horses, rabbits, deer , rodents and birds
similar to Y. enterocolitica but more benign
-often self limiting
gram negative rod that causes pneumonia but also cause wound and soft tissue infections and UTI
gram negative rod, causes UTIs, has enzyme UREASE to increase virulence?
-gram negative facultatively anaerobic curved rod
-infects the GI tract and causes diarrhea. disease is cholera
Describe virulence in terms of ID for Vibrio cholera, salmonella, shigella, streptococcus and yersenia? who is the worst!?!?
Yersenia pesits is the worst- LD50 is 10
Streptococcus pneumonia LD 50 50
shigella - 100
Vibrio and salmonella- 100,000
vibrio of spiral shaped microaerophilic gram negative bacteria
-hard to see under microscope
-grows best at 42 C
this species of campylobacter is one of the major cause of food borne illness in DEVELOPED countries
-water, milk, meat, and chicken
rehydration is often suffiecient
this species of campylobacter is associated with pork and bottled water in European union
what infection might be associated with Guillain Barre syndrome?
-gram negative pleomorphic rod
-isolated in 1984, 2005 nobel prize
-fecal oral or oral oral transmission- flies can be sectors
-humans are main reservoir
-zoonotic from cats, dogs or other mammals.
what disease is associated with 70-100% of people with gastritis, or peptic ulcers? 85% of gastric ulcers are from this and 95% of duodenal ulcers?
gram negative obligate aerobe rods
-soil, water, and ubiquitous in environment and in hospital.
-fluorescent pigments, greenish pus, sweet smelling wound infections
-resistant to ABX AND DISEINFECTANTS!
---pneumonia, osteomyelitis, sepsis, wound infections in burn patients, SWIMMERS EAR, UTIS
-not part of normal flora unless patient compromised
-differentiate from ENterobacteria by presence of CYTOCHROME OXIDASE
-capsule, pili, LPS, exotoxins, elastase, hemolysisn, and abx resistant
-pelomorphic gram negative rods (cocci two)
often long filaments
-type B is the most pathogenic due to the capsule
-most common cause of MENINGITIS in 3months-3 years
-other disease-pharyngitis, pneumonia in adults, conjunctivitis, cellulite, sunsets,
-we have a vaccine (conjugate-polysaccharide (capsule + protein toxid)
causes whooping cough
-gram negative coccus = strict aerobe (obviously because in the lungs)
both of these species are gram negative coccobacilli- picked due to the risk of bioterrorism!
-one is AKA tularemia and has a rabbit reservoir
-bucellosis- goats, sheep, cattle, bison, pigs
-gram negative rods, fastidious obligate aerobes, faculative intracellular paracite
-COOLING TOWES and A/C water is the source of infection
-NO PERSON TO PERSON SPREAD
-occurence from aerosols
Legionella pneumophilia- Legionaire's disease
-gram negative upper respiratory tract flora, causes endocarditis
gram negative rods, found in OROPHARYNX, causes periodontal disease, rarely endocarditis
gram negative pelomorphic rod shaped anaerobes
normal flora in the GI tract- also found in the oral cavity
-can cause disease in the gingival crevice
-bacteriodies are associated with chronic adult periodontitis
gram negative anerobe rod in the mouth
-can degrade collaged in perio disease= associated with progression. higher viruelence than Prevotella. intermedia.
what two species used to be Bacteriodes and why are they no longer?
porphyomonas gingivalis and prevotella intermedia. they don't become stiumatled or grow in high bile so they were moved.
BOTH are black when grown on BLOOD AGAR
-a species found in periodontal disease and healthy gingiva
-black when grown on blood agar
-less virulent than porphymonas gingivitis?
-gram negative anaerobes
-suspected to be the MAIN cause of PERIO disease
-#3 STD in the US (chlamidia #1, Neisserie #2)
-visualze with dark field microscopy
-treat with Pen G (injected)
in what disease and stage of disease would you see organ and neurological damage. Granulomas called gummas, neurological symptoms and heart disease?
tertiary stage of syphillus
in what stage of syphillus can the disease pass from mom to baby as well as have dental ramifications? what are the dental ramifications?
-Hutchinson's teeth and Mulberry molars
what non general _____ disease includes bejel and yaws?
non venereal treponemal diseas
-causes lime disease
-endemic in the US- NE and mid Atlantic states, Minnesota, Wisconsin, California, and Oregon
-Tick vector- LEADING VECTOR BORNE disease in the US. exodus vector and rodents. deer and ticks are the reservoir.
-rash at bite
-if untreated can lead to neurological symptoms, cardiac dysfunction, and arthritis
Borrelia burgdorferi! lyme disease!
-these have NO cell wall, NO GRAM STATUS
-smallest free living bacteria
-treat with erythromycin, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones
gram negative cocci, obligate intracellular parasite
-causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever,
humans are the RESERVOIR, vector is louse
-bit by louse- replicates in cell in blood vessels
RASH EVERYWHERE but the face, HANDS and soles of feet
-exterminate the vector- dusting,medicated shampoo/soap
-obligate intracellular parasites
-leading STD in the US
-some may have co infection with gonorrhea
-inflammation of the urethra
-can infect fallopian tubes
-leading cause of blindness in some countries
what STD is the leading cause of blindness in some countries???
gram negative microaerophilic or capnophilic (c02 dependant) coccobaccil
-found in the periodontal pockets, implicated in aggressive forms of perio disease.
-often isolated from cerviofacial actinomyces infections as co pathogens
gram negative faculative anaerobic coccobacilli (formerly bacetiodes)
-plaque biolfilms in both HEALTHY and people with periodontisi
-dentoalveolar abscesses, infective endocarditis, possibly chronic periodontitis
-carbon dioxide-dependent, Gram-negative rods
1) Found in plaque, mucosal surfaces, saliva
2) Infections in immunocompromised, destructive
*remember, capno means CO2 dependent)
– Gram-negative anaerobic pleomorphic rods, degrade collagen
1) Can be normal flora or problem in periodontal disease
2) Gingival crevice and subgingival plaque in small numbers
3) Associated with chronic periodontitis and dentoalveolar abscess
4) Described as KEYSTONE pathogen for periodontal disease; contributes to homeostasis breakdown than other bacteria cause damage
Gram-negative pleomorphic anaerobic rods
1) May be part of normal flora
2) Also in periodontal pockets, dental plaque, chronic periodontitis, dentoalveolar abscess
3) Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis – bleeding gums, neutrophils,
what are the organisms that cause acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis?
1) Can produce ammonia and hydrogen sulfide - odor causing organism in halitosis
2) Normal gingival crevice and tonsils
3) Also in periodontal infections, acute ulcerative gingivitis, dentoalveolar abscess
Gram-negative filaments anaerobes
1) Found in dental plaque
2) No known disease association
negative anaerobic helical/spirillum.
1) Difficult to culture
2) Found in the gingival crevice; closely associated with acute ulcerative gingivitis, destructive periodontal disease (degrades collagen)
which genera do the majority of the supra gingival bacteria belong to?
streptococci are the majority in the supra gingival.
main is mutants, salivarus, anginosus, mitis
which 5 species make up the sub gingival plaque?
actinomyces, prevotella, porpymoas, fuosbacterium,
*you get more anaerobic as you go sub gingival*
what bacteria are the most acidogenic and aciduric
A. High numbers in lesions – BUT rarely isolated from plaque before development of caries
B. Correlation with numbers in plaque and saliva and caries
C. Grow in low pH and make lactic acid
D. Role? Progression of deep enamel lesion not initiation – pioneer in advancing, especially dentin
A. Development of root surface caries, especially Actinomyces viscosus but role not clear
B. Association with the development of root surface caries (experimental in gnotobiotic rodents)
C. Early studies showed a high prevalence of A. viscosus, A. naesundii and Rothia dentocariosa from human root surface caries
D. Recent observations suggest a stronger association between Lactobacilli, mutans Streptococci and root caries
A. Gram negative anaerobic coccus present in supragingival plaque
B. Require lactate for growth, but can’t metabolize dietary carbs (get lactate from other bugs)
C. Beneficial effect on caries because acids produced not as cariogenic?
D. WARNING: no good human studies