Hematology Lab Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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1

Functions of Blood

Provides a medium for the maintenance of homeostasis in the cell's environment Functions as a transportation system, bringing nutrients and oxygen to the cells and removing wastes and carbon dioxide from interstitial fluid around the cells Integrates various organs through hormones Provide buffers for acid-base balance Destroys foreign organisms through phagocytosis and antibody action Provide distribution of body heat & heat conservation Prevent its own loss through hemostasis (coagulation) mechanisms

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The percent volume of whole blood that is occupied by red blood cells

Hematocrit

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Determined by comparing the height of the red cell in the centrifuged tube to the height of the total column of blood

Blood Hematocrit

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Normal values of male Hematocrit values and range

Average = 46% Range = 43 - 49%

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Average = 46% Range = 43 - 49%

Males Hematocrit Levels

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Average = 41% Range = 36 - 45%

Females Hematocrit Levels

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Severe Anemia

Hematocrit may fall to as low as 15%

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Hematocrit may fall to as low as 15%

Severe Anemia

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Normal Values of Females Hematocrit & Range

Average = 41% Range = 36 - 45%

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Hematocrit

The percent volume of whole blood that is occupied by red blood cells

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Polycythemia

Hematocrit may rise to as high as 70%

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Hematocrit rises to as high as 70%

Polycythemia

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Calculating Hematocrit

Hct (%) = height of red cells (mm) / height of red cells and plasma (mm) x 100

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Amount of O2 which blood can carry is closely related to

Concentration of hemoglobin

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Each gram of hemoglobin when completely saturated is capable of carrying

1.34 ml of oxygen

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34% of the red blood cell by weight is

Hemoglobin; it is essentially a bag of hemoglobin

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Average = 15.4 g/100 ml blood Range = 13.6 to 17.2

Average concentration/Range of Hemoglobin in Males

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Average: 13.3 g/100 ml blood Range: 11.5 to 15.0

Average concentration/Range of Hemoglobin in Females

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Anemic

Less than 10g/100ml of blood

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Less than 10g/100ml of blood

Anemic

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Calculation of Total Maximum Oxygen Carrying Capacity

Total blood Hb (g) = blood volume (ml of blood) X hemoglobin concentration (g Hb/ml of blood) Total oxygen carrying capacity = (total g Hb) X (1.34 ml O2/g Hb)

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Each gram of hemoglobin is capable of carrying

1.34 ml of oxygen when completely saturated

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Strenuous exercise, rheumatic fever, severe burns

Neutrophilic Leukocytosis

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Blood Volume for Females

65 ml blood per kilogram body weight +/- 10% (1 kg = 2.2 lbs)

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Differential white blood cell count

The percentage of each type of white cell in the total leukocyte population is calculated

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Average concentration/range of hemoglobin in Males

Average = 15.4 g/100 ml blood Range = 13.6 to 17.2

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Neutrophilic Leukopenia

Protozoan infections, malnutrition, aplastic anemia

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Neutrophilic Leukocytosis

Strenuous exercise, rheumatic fever, severe burns

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Scarlet fever, parasitic infections, allergic reactions

Eosinophilia

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Average concentration/Range of Hemoglobin in Females

Average: 13.3 g/100 ml blood Range: 11.5 to 15.0

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Protozoan infections, malnutrition, aplastic anemia

Neutrophilic Leukopenia

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Lymphocytosis

Mumps, German measles, whooping cough

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Blood volume for Males

79 ml blood per kilogram body +/- 10%

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Mumps, German measles, whooping cough

Lymphocytosis

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Eosinophilia

Scarlet fever, parasitic infections, allergic reactions

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Monocytosis

Chronic diseases, such as tuberculosis & leukemia

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Granulocytes

Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils

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Chronic diseases, such as tuberculosis & leukemia

Monocytosis

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Lymphocytopenia

Administration of glucocorticoid drugs

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Administration of glucocorticoid drugs

Lymphocytopenia

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Eosinophils

2-4% of total WBC 13 microns diameter Bilobed nucleus Coarse red-orange cytoplasmic granules, blue-purple nucleus

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Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils

Granulocytes

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Neutrophils

65% of total WBC 10-12 microns diameter Multi-lobed (3 or more) nucleus Small pink cytoplasmic granules, purple nucleus

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Small Lymphocytes

20-25% of total WBC 7 microns diameter Very large, spherical nucleus surrounded by a thin cytoplasm Light blue cytoplasm (nongranular), deep blue or purple nucleus

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65% of total WBC 10-12 microns diameter Multi-lobed (3 or more) nucleus Small pink cytoplasmic granules, purple nucleus

Neutrophils

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2-4% of total WBC 13 microns diameter Bilobed nucleus Coarse red-orange cytoplasmic granules, blue-purple nucleus

Eosinophils

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Basophils

0.5% of total WBC 14 microns diameter Bilobed nucleus Black nucleus is usually completely obscured by large, deep-blue or reddish-purple cytoplasmic granules

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0.5% of total WBC 14 microns diameter Bilobed nucleus Black nucleus is usually completely obscured by large, deep-blue or reddish-purple cytoplasmic granules

Basophils

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Agranulocytes (Mononuclear Leukocytes)

Small Lymphocytes Large Lymphocytes Monocytes

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20-25% of total WBC 7 microns diameter Very large, spherical nucleus surrounded by a thin cytoplasm Light blue cytoplasm (nongranular), deep blue or purple nucleus

Small Lymphocytes

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Another name for Granulocytes

Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

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Large Lymphocytes

3% of total WBC 10 microns diameter Large oval, indented nucleus Light blue cytoplasm (nongranular), dark purple nucleus

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Erythrocyte

Another name for a RBC

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Monocytes

3-7% of total WBC 15 microns diameter Large, deeply indented nucleus (horseshoe-shaped) Light blue-gray cytoplasm (nongranular), blue or purple nucleus

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3-7% of total WBC 15 microns diameter Large, deeply indented nucleus (horseshoe-shaped) Light blue-gray cytoplasm (nongranular), blue or purple nucleus

Monocytes

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Normally, each 100 mL of blood will contain approximately:

15 grams of hemoglobin, which is distributed among the 500 billion red cells in each 100 mL of whole blood

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Another name for red blood cell

Erythrocyte

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3% of total WBC 10 microns diameter Large oval, indented nucleus Light blue cytoplasm (nongranular), dark purple nucleus

Large Lymphocytes

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In our lab we measured our hemoglobin concentration in

% = g Hb/100 ml of blood

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Major difficulties seldom develop until

level of 7.5g/100ml of blood is reached

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A rat has approximately how much blood per kilogram?

70 ml blood per kilogram body weight

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average leukocyte count

7,500/mm^3 average

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Another name for Agranulocytes

Mononuclear Leukocytes

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Function of Heparin

inhibits coagulation