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Not a cell, not alive;
Cannot produce on their own;
Need a "host" to live off of, invade your cells and use their "machinery" to make proteins and replicate themselves;
Made up of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat



When a virus is RNA based


What are viruses made up of?

Made up of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat


How chicken pox works

Virus has to first attach to your cell and insert its DNA into the host cell's chromosome; the little bit of DNA that the chicken pox virus has will enter the nucleus of your cell and join up with the genes of your own in the nucleus and then gives the instruction to make the chicken pox; the cell becomes a viral manufacturer plant which will then export from that cell and effect neighboring cells


How humodeficiency disorder works

Retrovirus inserts RNA and reverse transcribes and inserts into host genome; the RNA is transposed into the DNA by the cell and then that DNA is put into the nucleus to make the virus


Purpose of our skin in immunology

Are bodies best defense; our skin on the outside of our body keeps everything in and invaders out; if you breech that barrier (ex: cut) then you have an infection in that spot because there is nothing stopping the invaders from entering the body


Weak spots in our immunology defenses

Gas exchange areas: airborne particles can enter during respiratory exchange
Waste removal areas: urine, is pretty acidic and will kill off most of the bacteria that enters it
Digestive system: the digestive tract can become infected, the HCl (very strong acid) in our stomach is made to kill bacteria (not all, but most)
Reproductive organs: vagina, very acidic secretions that tend to kill bacteria, fungi, yeast that could invade



Form of defense in our stomach/digestive system



"Non self" material; a specific non-self molecule that is recognized
Ex: Chicken Pox Virus (have proteins on the viral coat), Snake Venom, Bacteria has molecules on the cell membrane that are foreign to our body (making them antigens)


Why can't the body patrol from foreign invaders randomly?

They will act on their own cells


What are antigenic determination sites?

Antigens have antigenic determination sites which are molecules that are recognized as foreign by the body


All of the cells in the body have these markers on their surface to distinguish them as "self"

MHC markers (Major Histocompatibility Markers)


What does MHC stand for?

Major Histocompatibility Markers


Why would our bodies reject a donation like a kidney?

The immune system will go crazy because the proteins it produces will be different than the recipients body; the immune system will reject the body part


Why do RBC not have MHC I markers on them?

RBC do not make a nucleus, so they do not have MHC I markers on them


What cells contain MHC I markers?

All cells except RBC


Why do RBC not have MHC I markers on them?

RBC do not make a nucleus, so they do not have MHC I marker on them



Presenter cells;
Incorporate protein fragments from protein that were consumed by the cell (made from what the phagocytes have eaten);
Become presenter cells to show what the invader is and have them killed


What are the two parts of the Immune System?

Nonspecific & Specific


How does the Nonspecific part of the Immune System work?

Response: The defending cells are non-specific in what they attack;
Reaction to "non-self";
Doesn't matter what is is, will always attack anything that is not you: If you get a transplant, it can attack the new body part even if it is not causing harm


Parts of the Nonspecific Immune System



T or F, the parts of the nonspecific immune system must change shape in order to leave the blood?

True; these parts will leave the blood and become phagocytic, they must change shape in order to leave the blood, this way they can enter tissues all throughout the body


How does the Specific part of the Immune System work?

It reacts to specific antigens: ex: chicken pox, mono;
Very robust;
If you have a good defense shield up, then the disease is wiped out;
Hard to come about because you need to learn about the virus from a previous exposure: you get sick from it once and then you have immunity;


What are the cells in the specific immune response?



Describe Lymphocytes and their structure

They are the major cells in a specific immune response;
Have immune receptors;
On the end of the cell, they have a specific sensor that can tell what cells to eat, you don't want it to be a sensor any of your cells have so that it won't kill your own cells;
Need to wipe out those lymphocytes that match to your markers/proteins immediately;
Active sites DO NOT bind to your cell markers/proteins;
These cells line up with antigens, they bind to them and engulf them;
Lymphocytes are specific, each has one active site so it can only attach to one antigen


What are CD-4 Lymphocytes?

Have CD-4 markers
Mature in bone marrow
Attain immunocompetence; learn what "we" are


Purpose of White Blood Cells

Defend your body against pathogens


Polymorphonuclear (Granulocytes)

Neutrophils: Most abundant of WBC, 65% of WBC, they "eat stuff";


Purpose of Monocytes

Leave the blood and go out into the tissue spaces and then turn into macrophages (big eaters); macrophages have a big appetite



Specific Immune cells;
Have immune receptors that have shapes that match certain foreign shapes (on antigens);
They do not move around very much;



Specific Immune Cells;
Have immune receptors that have shapes that match certain foreign shapes (on antigens)


Natural Killer Cells

Act like cytotoxic t-cells (will attack your cells that are corrupted);
Attack cells with corrupted MHC markers;
These cells patrol the body, checking out cells;
Kill cells by secreting chemicals causing cells to lyse, or cause cells to self destruct;
Only kills the cell with matching immune receptors;
Not looking for a specific fragment on MHC1: If not normal, then the natural killer cells work


What are dendritic cells?

Antigen Presenting Cells
Present to the T-helper and the cytotoxic T-cells
Put fragments of antigen on both MHCI and MHCII markers
The Dendritic cell main job is to present to other WBC
Dendritic cells are useful presenters in viral infections and tumors and cancers


What does APC stand for?

Antigen Presenting Cells


Function of Interleukin 1

Growth factor;
Stimulates to divide and grow;
Stimulates clonal formation;
From antigen presenting cell to T-helper and T-cytotoxin;
Growth factor leads to clones development


Function of Interleukin 2

Acts on T-helpers;
Stimulates adjacent cells (paracrine function);
Stimulates B-cells, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T-cells, macrophages


Function of Gamma Interferon

Acts on macrophages to increase their activity;
98% of B and T cells killed in bone marrow and thymus during process of becoming self tolerant


Different between positive and negative selection of Gamma Interferon

Positive selection: Cell mutant recognize your MHC I
Negative selection: Cells must not have a fit between immune receptor and your protein fragments on MHC I



Things swell up, the area may get hot in the process (hot blood is located at the site);
Macrophages come to area of infection;
Fluid builds up


What happens when macrophages come to area of infection?

Causes other macrophages to come to that area;
Chemotoxis--following an odor trail;
Macrophages give off chemicals to attach other WBC;
Toll-like receptors on macrophages bind to certain "classes" of molecules on bacteria (not species specific)


Neutrophils relation to inflammation

Neutrophils 1st to eat macrophages to replace them;
Predominate in inflammation;
Clean up bacteria and dead tissue (dead neutrophils, debris) PUS


What brings the fluid build up during inflammation?

Arterioles dilate and capillaries become more leaky
1. Therefore you have a higher BP in capillaries and greater fluid loss
2. Arterioles dilate
a. Chemicals at work:
i. Prostaglandins
ii. Histamine and others
iii. From damaged cells to mast cells
Capillaries more leaky
a. Clotting factors leak out
b. Antibody factors leak out
c. Compliment factors leak out
Mesh encapsulates fluid traps bacterial



Chemical produced by cell when it is invaded;
Keeps the virus from docking the cell


What do CD8 cells bind to?



What do CD4 cells bind to?



Function of T-Helper Cells

Activate macrophages;
Act of cell mediating & stimulate T-cytotoxic


Function of T-Helper 2 Cells

Defend/protect against extracellular toxins/pathogens;
Stimulate B-cells→ causes antibody production;
Attract eosinophils


Purpose of Eosinophils in helping T-Helper 2 Cells

Depending upon which pathogen a macrophage ingests, it stimulates a different interleukin;
Eosinophils are important for attacking things such as worms;
a. Important in macroparasite infections
b. Inflammation response so that these infections (often parasitic) don’t mobilize and move freely


Helper cells acting on B cells for antibody production

i. T helper cells→ cytokines to stimulate B-cells→ antibody production
ii. As response proceeds, T helpers “tell” plasma cells to secrete IgE along with IgU



Move around in internal fluid and blood and attach to mast cells membrane



Coat antigens and make it very easy for macrophages to phagocytize (opsinozation)



Important basophil given off by mast cells;
Initiates inflammation response;
Loads up mast cells with IgE to enable quick inflammation response to those pathogens: primed and ready to go



When you become allergic to something, your immune system becomes overwhelmed with the antigen that you are allergic to
i. Causes overstimulation
ii. Mast cells in mucus membrane causes “dripping” instead of just inflammation i.e. runny nose
Allergies are common in western nations because we have gotten rid of many natural pathogens
i. Food borne allergies in blood supply could affect vasodilation


Endogenous Pyrogens

“Fire” in the body;
Causes fevers
i. Thermostat in hypothalamic region of brain is affected by chemicals given off by WBC (new set pt)
ii. Fight off by getting rid of these chemicals
iii. Fever breaks when set pt is below normal body temp (causes you to sweat a lot_
iv. Fevers are mainly caused by bacterial infections
High body temperature in lizards allowed them to fight off infection much more successfully and rapidly (behavioral thermoregulation);
Fever acts on hypothalamus and activates prostaglandins
i. Asprin prevents this (reduces fever)


Red Blood Cells

Packages of hemoglobin for oxygen transport;
All organelles eliminated→ no machinery or instructions (DNA) to make anything;
i. No MHCI markers
ii. This is why we can swap RBC among us
RBC have markers, but not self markers


Types of Markers for RBC

Genetically determined;
Marker=blood type;
A, B, AB, or O;
O has no marker;
Markers are carried on chromosomes


The different blood types

Type A: AA or AO
Type B: BB or BO
Type AB: AB
Type O: OO


T or F, your body makes antibodies against blood type markers that you lack

You can make antibodies against blood type markers that you LACK;
You make antibodies without having encountered in life;
We are genetically programmed to do this


Blood Type → Antibodies (what the person with this blood type has)

A → anti B
B→ anti A
AB→ no antibody
0 → anti A and anti B


Which blood type is the universal donor?

Type O blood is known as universal donor;
No markers to be degraded so anyone can have it


Which blood type is the universal recipient?

Type AB blood is known as the universal recipient;
Person does not have antibodies to attack markers


Rh Marker

Rh- = recessive
Rh+ = dominant
If you have the Rh marker you are Rh+
If you lack the Rh marker you are Rh-
Your body will trigger an immune response if you give an Rh- person Rh+ blood
Rh- person lacks a marker and must get transfusion from Rh- blood (create immune response and antibodies once introduced to Rh+)
During pregnancy, the fetus is immunized with mother’s RBC through the placenta;
1. Some fetal blood cells can get into the mom during birth


Pregnancy & Markers

i. When a Rh- mother, has a Rh+ fetus, there is a possibility that the Rh+ RBC can enter the mother
ii. The mother will develop active immunity against Rh markers and produce antibodies
iii. Rh+ fetus is at risk because anti Rh antibodies in mother can cross the placenta
iv. If a woman is Rh-, she must worry about this if pregnant (baby may be Rh+)
1. Need to passively immune mother before birth of Rh+ baby
a. Antibodies knock out Rh+ blood cells immediately before you can amount an immune response against them
i. No large antibody filters
ii. Wont affect/damage future Rh+ babies
v. Type A or B markers do not cross the placenta
1. There is no problem is a mother and child have different types of these markers