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Flashcards in Old Exam I Key Deck (53):
1

Sympathetic Input to Heart

Increases Heart Rate

2

Parasympathetic Input to Heart

Decreases Heart Rate

3

Which of the 2, parasympathetic or sympathetic, has more influence?

Parasympathetic; if you cut both the Heart Rate increases

4

End-Systolic Volume

Volume of blood left in ventricle after contraction

5

End-Diastolic Volume

Volume of blood in the ventricle before contracting; completely filled

6

Cardiac Output

Stroke Volume X Heart Rate
amount of blood pumped out each min: mL/min

7

Stroke Volume

amount of blood pumped out with each beat

8

"Lub" Sound

Closing of the AV valves

9

"Dub" Sound

Closing of the Semilunar Valves

10

During Ventricular Ejection

AV valves are close and the semilunar valves open

11

Starling's Law of the Heart

the force of contraction is directly proportional to the amount the cardiac fibers are stretched

12

A platelet plug is strengthened by a network of insoluble protein fibers called

Fibrin

13

During Exercise

Smooth muscles in the arterioles of skeletal muscles relax in response to metabolites (CO2, lactate, etc) given off by the active tissue

14

Venous Return to the heart is aided by:

Parasympathetic Nerve Activity
Contractions of Skeletal Muscles (Skeletal Muscle Pump)
The difference in pressure between the thoracic and abdominal cavities
Lymphatic Drainage

15

Cardiac Muscles are:

They are all striated
Most are autorhythmic
They all have long absolute refractory periods
They are NOT all innervated

16

When a RBC is destroyed, the heme loses its iron and is converted to:

Bilirubin

17

Granular Leukocytes

Neutrophil
Basophil
Eosinophil

18

Non Granular Leukocytes

Monocytes
Lymphocytes

19

Megakaryocytes shed small membrane-enclosed packets of cytoplasm into the circulation. Those packets are:

Thrombocytes

20

Path of Impulse through the Cardiac Conduction Path

SA Node -> AV node -> Atrioventricular Bundle -> Purkinje Fibers

21

Where does the Tricuspid Valve lie?

between the right ventricle and the right atrium

22

Where does the Bicuspid Valve lie?

between the left ventricle and the left atrium

23

Most movement of substances between capillary walls is by?

Diffusion

some bulk flow

24

Reflex Control is important because

it enables you to override local controls of blood flow to the gut during exercise
it allows blood flow to the skeletal muscles to increases in anticipation of exercise
it augments local control in providing and increased flow of blood to cardiac muscles during exercise

25

One way valves are present in:

the heart
the major veins
the lymphatic vessels

26

Lymph moves because of

contraction of skeletal muscles which squeeze lymphatic vessels
pressure differences within the different body cavities
smooth muscles in major lymphatic ducts that contract when stretched by filling

27

Myoglobin

Stores oxygen in the myocardial tissues during diastole and then releases this oxygen during systole

28

Blood pressure is monitored most directly by

Baroreceptors

29

Blood clots are dissolved by the protein:

Plasmin

30

T or F, Average blood pressure is lowest in the vessels with the smallest radius, because those vessels offer the greatest resistance to flow

False

31

T or F, at any point in time, most of the blood in your body is located in your veins

True

32

T or F, Small organic molecules and inorganic salts leave the blood stream through the walls of the systemic capillaries

True

33

T or F, Resistance to flow in the cerebral circulation varies with changes in arterial pressure

True

34

T or F, the velocity of blood is lowest in that part of the circulatory system that has the lowest blood pressure

False

35

T or F, Because your body regulates cardiac output, your blood pressure will rise if the distensibility of your arteries declines (as in atherosclerosis)

True

36

T or F, The amount of lymph formation is a function of the blood pressure

True

37

Blood enters the right atrium from the Vena Cava

True

38

The left ventricle has thicker walls, and thereby produces stronger contractions and a greater stroke volume, than the right ventricle

False

39

Blood flow from the arteries into the arterioles even during diastole because the arterial walls are elastic and their recoil continues to drive the blood forward

True

40

On average, all of the blood in your body moves through a capillary each minute

True

41

80% of the water in your body is located in the interstitial tissues

False

42

Albumins are blood proteins used in the transport of steroid hormones

False

43

Total solute concentration is greater in the interstitial tissue fluid than in the blood plasma

False

44

The flow of blood is greater in the aorta than the vena cava because aortic pressure is much greater than the pressure in the vena cava

False

45

Most of ventricular filling occurs while the atria is relaxed

True

46

When determining blood pressure, you hear the turbulent flow of blood in the brachial artery when that artery is partially occluded by the pressure cuff

True

47

A Name for the percentage of formed elements ("cells") in blood

Hematocrit

48

The neurotransmitter given off by the sympathetic nervous system that acts to constrict the arterioles in the intestines

Norepinephrine

49

Specialized regions cardiac muscle cells that permit electrical conduction between adjacent fibers

Intercalcated Discs

50

The liquid portion of blood that has clotted

Serum

51

You have a 10% sugar solution. How many mg of sugar do you have in each mL of solution?

10g glucose/100 mL = 0.1 g/ml = 100 mg/ml

52

Your blood pressure, heart rate, and stroke volume all double during a bout of exercise. What has happened to your total peripheral resistance?

Flow = Cardiac output = Pressure difference / resistance or (SV)(HR) = Pressure difference / resistance
If SV increases 2X and HR increases 2X, then CO increases 4X
4(CO) = 4 (dP/R)
R must fall by 2X

53

Your patient's cardiac output is 6.0 liters of blood/min, his HR is 75 beats/min, and his end-diastolic volume is 120 mL. What is his end-systolic volume?

CO = (HR)(SV) or CO = (HR)(EDV - ESV)
6000mL/min = 75 beats/min (120mL/beat-x)
600/75 = 80 m/b = 120 ml/b-x
X = 120 - 80 = 40 ml/beat