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Flashcards in HIV/AIDS Deck (54):
1

genus of HIV

Lentivirus

2

criterion for differentiation @ HIV types: enumerate

(1) genetic make-up
(2) geographic distribution

3

majority of cases; pandemic, from sub-Saharan Africa
A. HIV-1
B. HIV-2
C. HIV-3

A

4

HIV-1 has subtypes M, N and O. Which causes global epidemics?

M (majority)

5

HIV-1 subtype Localized to Cameroon, Gabon &
Equatorial Guines

O

6

HIV-1 subtype in Cameroon only

N

7

subtype E of HIV-1 is now classified as __

CRF (circulating recombinant form)

8

Why is HIV capable of producing circulating recombinant form?

Because its segmented linear genome is prone to mutation

9

(1) No cases in the Philippines
(2) No HIV-2 pandemic
(3) Less pathogenic than HIV-1

Which is false about HIV-2?

(1)

we have 1 case; however it is more seen in West Africa

10

What is the genome of HIV?

A pair of (+) ssRNA

11

shape of capsid containing RNA

Conical

12

T or F: HIV is a naked virus.

F. It has an envelope

13

In the viral envelope of HIV-1, the peplomer cap is also known as __

gp120

14

In the viral envelope of HIV-1, the peplomer stalk is also known as __

gp41

15

gp120 and gp41 come from __

gp160

16

enumerate the 3 major genes of HIV

Envelope
Polymerase
Group Specific Antigen

17

codes for capsid protein, matrix protein, nucleocapsid

Group Specific Antigen

18

codes for reverse transcriptase, protease, integrase,
and ribonuclease; unique for HIV

Polymerase

19

encode for (1) surface protein, (2) transmembrane
protein

Envelope

20

identify the accessory gene: essential for replication specifically for elongation

TAT gene (transcriptional activator)

21

identify the accessory gene: bringing mRNA into translations

REV gene (regulator of viral gene expression)

22

enumerate the 2 main differences of HIV-1 & HIV-2

(1) structure
(2) weight of each of the component of the virion

23

HIV-2 __ HIV-1 (weight)
A. >
B. <
C. =

A

24

envelope precursor of HIV-2

gp140

25

HIV binds to CD4 antigen on cells such as Macrophages
and T-Helper cells via the ___

HIV surface glycoprotein, gp120

26

Once HIV has attached & chemokines stabilize the interaction, __ changes --> exposing hydrophobic
regions that embed in the membrane of host cell.

gp41

27

Which co-receptor isn't one of those which HIV has to attach to?
A. CKR5
B. CCR5
C. CR5 & CXCR4
D. R4

C

R5 dapat

28

another name for CXCR4

fusin

29

Which is false about HIV?
a. There is fusion between the membranes of the virus and the host cell before entry of nucleocapsid.
b. Initial infection of HIV is abundant in the mucosa.
c. There is formation of syncytia with the isolation of
the virus in cell lines.

C

No syncytia

30

Initial infection of HIV is __
A. T-tropic
B. M-tropic
C. Both

B

31

Later infection of HIV is __
A. T-tropic
B. M-tropic
C. Both

A

32

HIV that target T-lymphocytes uses the
__ receptor

CXCR4

33

enumerate three steps by which a co-receptor (i.e. CKR5) works

(1) Attachment
(2) Binding to second receptor
(3) Fusion

34

CK5 receptor is receptor for __ HIV
A. T-tropic
B. M-tropic
C. Both

B

(aka initial infection of HIV)

35

functions primarily to convert +ssRNA genome into a
complete double stranded DNA form (not the
complete virion)

identify the enzyme

reverse transcriptase enzyme

36

T or F
the virion utilizes the host cell’s DNA dependent RNA
polymerase for transcription

T

37

allows integration of the dsDNA form into the host
cell’s chromosome

identify the enzyme

integrase enzyme

38

Which is false?
A. dsDNA is translated into viral proteins in the
ribosomes of the host
B. replication of the viral genome happens in the nucleus
C. in latency, viral genome (dsDNA) undergo no production/very little replication of new virion
D. the virus exits the cell via budding

B

cytoplasm, not nucleus

39

What allows maturation of HIV outside the host
cell to its functional components? How does it activate maturation?

protease enzyme, cleaving chunk of protein

40

Which is not a mode of transmission for HIV?
A. sexual
B. parenteral
C. arthropod-borne
D. vertical

C

41

Which doesn't the CD4 T-cell release?
A. IL-1
B. IL-2
C. IL-4 and IL-10
D. IFN-γ

A

42

role of IL-2

stimulates T cell proliferation of cytotoxic
T cell which releases cytokines that inhibit viral
replication

43

What do IL-4 & IL-10 do?

stimulate maturation of antibody
response of B cell which produces virus-specific
antibodies)

44

two main characteristics of primary HIV infection: enumerate

rapid rise in
plasma virus and a rapid decline in circulating CD4 +
T - cells.

45

True or False.
In HIV patients, opportunistic infections are a precursor to T cell decline.

F

Opportunistic infections happen because there is T-Cell depletion, hence they happen only once T-cell decline is so intense.

46

The HIV - specific antibody response takes longer to
initiate and results in seroconversion. What is seroconversion?

when the patient has detectable level
of antibodies against the infectious agent

47

___ Sarcoma may be seen in AIDS patients

Kaposi's

48

most common way of diagnosing AIDS

ELISA

49

Identify the diagnostic method
- Blood HIV load varies markedly during
infection and viral turnover is always rapid
- Used to monitor titer of HIV
- Employed when a person is in therapy

Plasma Viral Load

50

only HIV detection method in establishing acute conditions for children < 6 months

PCR

51

Which is false?
A. HIV dried in salt solution on stainless steel surfaces
may still be detected after a week
B. Disinfectants are more effective where HIV has dried on surfaces or in the presence of large amounts of protein
C. If HIV is associated with large number of
protein, it has a higher likelihood of retaining their viability.
D. HIV is labile to heat and drying.

B

less, not more

52

identify the type of HIV drug
o Competitive inhibitors of reverse transcriptase
o AZT, DDI, DDC, d4T, 3TC, Abacavir, succinate, Previon

nucleoside inhibitors

53

identify the type of HIV drug
o Reverse transcriptase inhibitors, but bind to sites other
than the active site of the enzyme
o Nevirapine, Atervidine, Delavirdine, Efavirenz

non-nucleoside inhibitors

54

HIV may be treated via HAART. What does HAART mean?

Highly active anti-retroviral therapy