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Flashcards in Infectious Disease 4 Deck (80):
1

Two main types of vector borne diseases?

Intracellular and Extracellular

2

2 types of Intracellular VBD?

Rickettsia and Erlichiosis

3

2 Types of Rickettsia?

Epidemic typhus and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

4

What causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

Ticks

5

What causes Epidemic typhus?

Lice

6

What are three extracullar VBD?

1) Lyme disease
2) Relapsing fever
3) Plague

7

What causes Lyme Disease?

Ticks

8

What causes Plague?

Fleas

9

What can be found at the bite location in Rickettsia?

Crusted lesion (eschar)

10

How does one diagnose Rickettsia?

Immunostaining or anti-rickettsial serology

11

Where do Rickettsia mainly multiply??

Small vessel endothelia

12

What are severe manifestations in Rickettsia due to?

Vascular leakage secondary to endothelial cell damage

13

What are the severe manifestations of Rickettsia?

Rash, fever, and CNS manifestations

14

In Rickettsia what does small vessel vasculitis cause?

Microthrombi, focal ischemia, and hemorrhage

15

What does typhus group Rickettsia do to endothelial cells?

Lyses them

16

How does Spotted Fever group Rickettsia spread?

Spreads from cell to cell

17

Risk of Rickettsia spread?

Hypovolemic shock and peripheral edema

18

What type of exotoxins/endotoxins does Rickettsia have?

None

19

While lacking exotoxins/endotoxins what does Rickettsia possess?

LPS which is non-toxic

20

What causes much of the tissue damage in Rickettsia?

Cytotoxic T-cell immune response

21

What do you use for treatment of Rickettsia?

Doxycycline

22

What do Rubella, Rubeola, and Erlichiosis almost never do?

Shock or DIC

23

Which strain of Rickettsia is known as Epidemic Typhus?

Rickettsia Prowazekii

24

How is R. Prowazekii transmitted?

Head lice

25

What does rash look like in Prowazekii?

Moves away from center (centrifugal)

26

In Prowazekii, what happens after rash development?

CNS involvement with apathy, or coma

27

What are the severe clinically findings of severe Prowazekii?

Gangrene of fingers, nose, earlobes, scrotum, penis, vulva

28

What types of ticks cause R. rickettsi?

Dog tick and wood tick

29

What is incubation time for R. rickettsi

7 days

30

What does the rash look like for R. Ricksttsi?

Hemorrhagic rash that extends over entire body including palms and soles, possibly eschar

31

Where does the R.Rickettsi rash begin?

Periphery to trunk

32

Major cause of death for Spotted Fever group?

Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema

33

Is the Spotted fever group exudative or transudative?

Exudative

34

What is scrub typhus?

Orienta transmitted by mites that resembles typhus.

35

What is the rash like in scrub typhus?

Transitory or absent

36

How does Erlichiosis differ from RMSF?

No eschar, rash is rare

37

What does Erlichiosis infect?

Neutrophils or monocytes

38

Why is the rash not as prominent in Erlichiosis?

It doesn't affect endothelial cells as much

39

What is defining characteristic for Erlichiosis?

Cytoplasmic inclusions called morulae. Masses of bacteria

40

Ticks of the white tailed deer are involved in what VBD?

Lyme disease

41

How does Borrelia (Lyme Disease) avoid host antibodies?

Shifts antigenic markers

42

What parts of the body does LD affect?

CNS, joints, heart

43

LD is referred ti as what type of inflammatory disorder?

Multisystem chronic

44

How do you treat LD?

Doxycyline

45

How do you prevent LD?

OspA vaccine

46

What is the primary stage of LD?

Skin rash appear and shows target lesion

47

What is secondary and tertiary phases of LD?

Arthritis, polyneuropathy, encephalitis, and cardiac arrythmias

48

What is the bullseye mark in LD known as?

Erythema chronicum migrans

49

How long does it take LD to reach secondary part of the disease?

Months

50

What causes the secondary disease in LD?

Dissemination of spirochetes

51

How long until LD tertiary disease appears?

Years

52

What allows for relapsing fever or Borrelia recurrentis?

Ability of organism to express new surface antigens

53

How is plague spread?

Arthropod bite

54

What type of cycle does Plague follow?

Sylvatic

55

Where does plague proliferate?

Lymphoid tissues

56

What does injection of yersinia outer proteins do?

Inhibits secretion of inflammatory cytokines and inactivates molecules that regulate actin polymerization

57

Symptoms of epidemic typhus?

Fever, chills, cough, rash, severe muscle pain, delerium, and sensitivity to light

58

Shape of tularemia?

Gram neg coccobacillus pleomorphic

59

Where does tularemia go, intra or extra?

Intra

60

How do you get tularemia?

Rabbits/rabbit skin

61

Tularemia fatalities asscoiated with what?

Endotoxin

62

3 types of tularemia worth knowing?

Ulceroglandular
Pulmonary infection
Oculoglandular

63

How do you get pasturella multocida?

Animal bites, primarily cats

64

How does pasturella present?

Rapidly (24 hrs) with cellulitis, abscesses, and sepsis

65

How do you treat pasturella?

Augmentin

66

Disease associated with kittens?

Cat scratch disease (Bartonella Henselae)

67

What does Bartonella cause?

Localized lymphadenopathy

68

How do you get Ornithosis?

Dust borne contaminated ecreta from birds

69

Lethal presentation of Ornithosis shows up as?

Focal necrosis in liver and spleen
Mononuclear changes in kidney's heart, and brain

70

Toxoplasmosis found where intra or extra?

Intracellular

71

Who is toxoplasmosis most dangerous to?

Infants in utero

72

Where during pregnancy is the infant most at risk from toxo?

1st trimester

73

What does Leptospirosis resemble?

Viral meningitis

74

What is Weil's disease?

Severe leptospirosis with jaundice, bleeding, and renal failure

75

Besides Weil's disease what is another presentation of Leptospirosis?

Lymphocytic atypical meningitis

76

What does Listeriosis look like?

Gram + rod

77

How do you get Listeriosis?

Contact with infected abortion, during vaginal childbirth

78

Forms of Listeriosis?

Abortion
Neonatal sepsis
Meningitis

79

What does Brucellosis look like?

Gram - coccobacilli

80

What is Brucelosis most common in?

Cows