Flashcards in HIV 1 and 2 Deck (57):
#cases per population
# cases per unit of time
What age range are new AIDS diagnoses in?
What is one cure for AIDS?
Bone marrow transplant using donor mutation
Where is the mutation that cures AIDS?
Which fluids can transmit HIV?
Blood, semen, vaginal fluid, and breast milk
Is HIV diagnosis higher in males or females?
Main cause of HIV transmission in males?
Male to male sexual contact
Main cause of HIV transmission in females?
Which race has highest rate of HIV?
Why is generation X of concern?
Optomistic in that they haven't seen themselves die of AIDs
What is the one cure for AIDs?
Mutation of CCR5 delta 32 from bone marrow donors with said mutation
Which fluids cannot transfer HIV/no cases reported?
Saliva, tears, sweat
Where does HIV survive in the environment?
It doesn't. Dries and dies
3 routes of infection for neonates?
2) Infected birth canal
3) Ingestion of breast milk
Risk of passing to child in infected untreated mother?
Risk of passing to child in which mother and infant treated with HAART therapy?
Birth by C-section better or worse for transmission?
Which genus of retroviruses is HIV related to?
Difference between HIV 1 and 2?
HIV 2 less aggressive
Where would I find HIV 1?
US and Central Africa
Where would I find HIV 2?
India and West Africa
Function of Glycoprotein 120 (gp120)?
Mediates binding to CD4
Function of Glycoprotein 41 (gp41)?
Fusion to cell membranes
Lipids inside viral envelope are obtained from where?
Where can I find the major capsid protein p24 of the HIV virus?
What is the function of p24?
Purpose of the nef accessory gene?
Normal ratio of CD4 to CD8?
Ratio of CD4 to CD8 during AIDs?
Where does the HIV virus bind?
CD4 molecules on lymphocytes, macrophages, and glial cells
Proliferation of HIV virus is activated by what?
Cell activation of the CD4 related molecules
What kills the CD4 cells?
Cell lysis from viral replication or immune response to infected cells
What happens to uninfected CD4 cells?
They are activated and die by activation induced cell apoptosis
Approach to HIV treatment?
Inhibit viral replication and activation of infected cell
At what CD4 level do you have AIDs?
Which secretes have higher level of the virus genital or plasma?
Concurrent inflammation/infections can lead to high transmission rates due to?
Breaks in mucosa
How does the virus get in?
Breaks in mucosa or adhereance to dendritic cells in the mucosa
Co-receptor for entry into the cells?
Where are high amounts of CCR5 found?
Genital dendritic cells and GI lymphoid tissue
Resistant individuals are homozygous for what mutation?
What mutation happens late in infection?
CCR5 receptors change to CXCR4
Difference between CCR5 and CXCR4?
CCR5 on monocytes and lymphocytes
CXCR4 on T-lymphocytes
What can delay the switch from CCR5 to CXCR4?
Viral replication inhibitors
What does CXCR4 cause?
Syncitia formation of lymphoid tissues
What serves as a viral reservouir?
Seeding of lymphoid tissue throughout body
Where is there an increase in viral proliferation and cytotoxicity?
What do follicular dendritic cells serve as?
Viral reservoir due to no migration
What causes the initial decay of CD4?
Virus specific CD8 T-cell response
In the absence of significant levels of plasma viral RNA what will happen to HIV?
Continues to proliferate in lymphoid reservoirs
What is goal of HIV therapy?
Prolong latent phase
What 3 factors destroy the immune system?
Viral evolutionary changes
Where is there extensive early loss of CD4?
Major problem with early loss of CD4 from peyer's patches?
Products of gut pathogens released and activate mmune system which activates immune cells
How does HIV affect CD8?
Makes them sticky (CD69)
Retains them within lymph nodes