HIV 1 and 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HIV 1 and 2 Deck (57):
1

What's prevalence?

#cases per population

2

What's incidence?

# cases per unit of time

3

What age range are new AIDS diagnoses in?

35-40

4

What is one cure for AIDS?

Bone marrow transplant using donor mutation

5

Where is the mutation that cures AIDS?

CCR5-delta32

6

Which fluids can transmit HIV?

Blood, semen, vaginal fluid, and breast milk

7

Is HIV diagnosis higher in males or females?

Males

8

Main cause of HIV transmission in males?

Male to male sexual contact

9

Main cause of HIV transmission in females?

Heterosexual contact

10

Which race has highest rate of HIV?

African Americans

11

Why is generation X of concern?

Optomistic in that they haven't seen themselves die of AIDs

12

What is the one cure for AIDs?

Mutation of CCR5 delta 32 from bone marrow donors with said mutation

13

Which fluids cannot transfer HIV/no cases reported?

Saliva, tears, sweat

14

Where does HIV survive in the environment?

It doesn't. Dries and dies

15

3 routes of infection for neonates?

1) Transplacental
2) Infected birth canal
3) Ingestion of breast milk

16

Risk of passing to child in infected untreated mother?

30%

17

Risk of passing to child in which mother and infant treated with HAART therapy?

18

Birth by C-section better or worse for transmission?

Better

19

Which genus of retroviruses is HIV related to?

Lentivirus

20

Difference between HIV 1 and 2?

HIV 2 less aggressive

21

Where would I find HIV 1?

US and Central Africa

22

Where would I find HIV 2?

India and West Africa

23

Function of Glycoprotein 120 (gp120)?

Mediates binding to CD4

24

Function of Glycoprotein 41 (gp41)?

Fusion to cell membranes

25

Lipids inside viral envelope are obtained from where?

Host cell

26

Where can I find the major capsid protein p24 of the HIV virus?

The core

27

What is the function of p24?

Diagnostic antibodies

28

Purpose of the nef accessory gene?

Inhibits apoptosis

29

Normal ratio of CD4 to CD8?

2:1

30

Ratio of CD4 to CD8 during AIDs?

1:2

31

Where does the HIV virus bind?

CD4 molecules on lymphocytes, macrophages, and glial cells

32

Proliferation of HIV virus is activated by what?

Cell activation of the CD4 related molecules

33

What kills the CD4 cells?

Cell lysis from viral replication or immune response to infected cells

34

What happens to uninfected CD4 cells?

They are activated and die by activation induced cell apoptosis

35

Approach to HIV treatment?

Inhibit viral replication and activation of infected cell

36

At what CD4 level do you have AIDs?

37

Which secretes have higher level of the virus genital or plasma?

Genital

38

Concurrent inflammation/infections can lead to high transmission rates due to?

Breaks in mucosa

39

How does the virus get in?

Breaks in mucosa or adhereance to dendritic cells in the mucosa

40

Co-receptor for entry into the cells?

Gp120

41

Where are high amounts of CCR5 found?

Genital dendritic cells and GI lymphoid tissue

42

Resistant individuals are homozygous for what mutation?

CCR5 mutation

43

What mutation happens late in infection?

CCR5 receptors change to CXCR4

44

Difference between CCR5 and CXCR4?

CCR5 on monocytes and lymphocytes
CXCR4 on T-lymphocytes

45

What can delay the switch from CCR5 to CXCR4?

Viral replication inhibitors

46

What does CXCR4 cause?

Syncitia formation of lymphoid tissues

47

What serves as a viral reservouir?

Seeding of lymphoid tissue throughout body

48

Where is there an increase in viral proliferation and cytotoxicity?

Activated lymphocytes

49

What do follicular dendritic cells serve as?

Viral reservoir due to no migration

50

What causes the initial decay of CD4?

Virus specific CD8 T-cell response

51

In the absence of significant levels of plasma viral RNA what will happen to HIV?

Continues to proliferate in lymphoid reservoirs

52

What is goal of HIV therapy?

Prolong latent phase

53

What 3 factors destroy the immune system?

CD4 loss
CD8 loss
Viral evolutionary changes

54

Where is there extensive early loss of CD4?

Peyers patches

55

Major problem with early loss of CD4 from peyer's patches?

Products of gut pathogens released and activate mmune system which activates immune cells

56

How does HIV affect CD8?

Makes them sticky (CD69)
Retains them within lymph nodes

57

How is immune function inhibited by gp120 binding?

Antigen presentation cannot take palce