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Flashcards in Parasite 2 Deck (79)
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1

Tissue response to Helminths and Vermin?

Eosinophilic

2

What are the eosinophilic responses?

1) IgE, mast cells
2) Eosiniphilic chemotaxic factors
3) IL-4 and IL-5

3

Function of IL-4?

Switch to make IgE

4

Most important fatal helminth disease in humans?

Schistosomiasis

5

Death from Schistosomes caused by?

Hepatic granulomas and fibrosis

6

What does Schistosomiasis haematobium in Africa cause?

Hematuria/obstruction of bladder
Predisposition to squamous cell carcinoma of bladder

7

Where are sporocysts of Schistosomiasis?

Fresh water snails

8

How do fresh water snails infect humans?

They give rise to cercaria that penetrate through skin

9

Where do schistosome migrate after skin penetration?

Peripheral vasculature to portal venous system and pelvic venus system

10

How does tissue react to schistosome eggs?

Granulomas and fibrosis

11

What completes life cycle of schistosomes?

Eggs shed in feces that hatch in water

12

What causes the hepatic damage of schistosomes?

Toxic products and cell mediated immunity

13

Which interleukins result in induction of IgE synthesis, mastocytosis, and eosinophilia?

IL-3, 4, and 5

14

Resistance to re-infection correlates with what?

IgE levels

15

Eggs induce lymphocytes to secrete what?

Fibrogenic factors

16

Hallmark of Schistosomiasis?

Hepatic fibrosis out of proportion to parasite injury

17

Pathology of Schisto?

Calcified pinhead granulomas form around schisto egg

18

What do schisto granulomas induce?

Macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils

19

Appearance of portal fibrosis in Schisto?

Pipestem

20

Pipestem fibrosis results in what in Schisto?

Portal hypertension
Splenomegaly
Esophageal varices
Ascites

21

How does one get liver flukes (Clonorchis siensis)?

Eating improperly cooked fish

22

Where do adult flukes live?

Biliary ducts

23

How long do flukes live?

20 years

24

Chronic infection with liver flukes can cause what?

Cholangitis, cholelithiasis, pancreatitis, and cholangiocarcinoma

25

How does one get Taenia saginata?

Ingestion of undercooked beef

26

How do you get Taenia solium?

Ingestion of undercooked pork

27

Which Taenia causes Cysticercosus?

T. solium

28

How does T. solium cause cysticercosus?

Eggs ingested, larvae hatch, penetrate gut wall, hematogenous dissemination results in cysts in CNS.

29

Which cysts in CNS cause problems?

Degenerating cysts. Intact cysts cause little host reaction

30

Echinococcus is known as what?

Canine tapeworm