Parasite 2 Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Parasite 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Parasite 2 Deck (79):
1

Tissue response to Helminths and Vermin?

Eosinophilic

2

What are the eosinophilic responses?

1) IgE, mast cells
2) Eosiniphilic chemotaxic factors
3) IL-4 and IL-5

3

Function of IL-4?

Switch to make IgE

4

Most important fatal helminth disease in humans?

Schistosomiasis

5

Death from Schistosomes caused by?

Hepatic granulomas and fibrosis

6

What does Schistosomiasis haematobium in Africa cause?

Hematuria/obstruction of bladder
Predisposition to squamous cell carcinoma of bladder

7

Where are sporocysts of Schistosomiasis?

Fresh water snails

8

How do fresh water snails infect humans?

They give rise to cercaria that penetrate through skin

9

Where do schistosome migrate after skin penetration?

Peripheral vasculature to portal venous system and pelvic venus system

10

How does tissue react to schistosome eggs?

Granulomas and fibrosis

11

What completes life cycle of schistosomes?

Eggs shed in feces that hatch in water

12

What causes the hepatic damage of schistosomes?

Toxic products and cell mediated immunity

13

Which interleukins result in induction of IgE synthesis, mastocytosis, and eosinophilia?

IL-3, 4, and 5

14

Resistance to re-infection correlates with what?

IgE levels

15

Eggs induce lymphocytes to secrete what?

Fibrogenic factors

16

Hallmark of Schistosomiasis?

Hepatic fibrosis out of proportion to parasite injury

17

Pathology of Schisto?

Calcified pinhead granulomas form around schisto egg

18

What do schisto granulomas induce?

Macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils

19

Appearance of portal fibrosis in Schisto?

Pipestem

20

Pipestem fibrosis results in what in Schisto?

Portal hypertension
Splenomegaly
Esophageal varices
Ascites

21

How does one get liver flukes (Clonorchis siensis)?

Eating improperly cooked fish

22

Where do adult flukes live?

Biliary ducts

23

How long do flukes live?

20 years

24

Chronic infection with liver flukes can cause what?

Cholangitis, cholelithiasis, pancreatitis, and cholangiocarcinoma

25

How does one get Taenia saginata?

Ingestion of undercooked beef

26

How do you get Taenia solium?

Ingestion of undercooked pork

27

Which Taenia causes Cysticercosus?

T. solium

28

How does T. solium cause cysticercosus?

Eggs ingested, larvae hatch, penetrate gut wall, hematogenous dissemination results in cysts in CNS.

29

Which cysts in CNS cause problems?

Degenerating cysts. Intact cysts cause little host reaction

30

Echinococcus is known as what?

Canine tapeworm

31

How does Echinococcus normally present?

Asymptomatic and chronic

32

Hydatid cysts most commonly associated with what?

Echinococcus

33

Hydatid cysts most commonly in what?

Liver and lungs

34

Liver disease in which Echinococcus is almost always fatal?

E. multilocularis

35

Hydatid cysts of which Echinococcus can cause anaphylactic reaction?

E. Granulosus

36

Most common parasite in US?

Pinworms (Enterobius Vermicularis)

37

How are pinworms spread?

Spread by oral ingestion of eggs from anus

38

Most common symptom of pinworms?

Anal itching

39

Lifespan of pinworms?

2 months

40

Worms 3-4 the size of pinworms common in the tropics?

Whipworm (Trichuris trichura)

41

What can whipworm cause?

Local hyperemia and lesions of colonic mucosa

42

Common hookworms?

Hookworms (Necator amricanus/Ancylostoma duodenale)

43

Hookworms attach where?

Upper levels of small intestine

44

How is hookworm transmitted?

Infectious larvae, not eggs

45

Where do hookworm larvae penetrate?

Between toes

46

How does dissemination of Ascaris, Hookworms, and Strongyloides work?

Ingestion of eggs -> Bloodstream -> Lungs -> Invasion of filariform larvae -> esophagus -> Adult in intestine

47

When hookworm penetrates skin what is left?

Small itchy papule where they penetrate skin

48

What can result from hookworm traveling through lung?

Mild pneumonitis

49

Most significant signs and symptoms from hookworm?

From ingestion of host blood
0.2ml/worm/day

50

What does Strongyloides parallel in distribution and life cycle?

Hookworm

51

How does Strongyloide get in?

Filaria through skin

52

Important reservoirs for Strongy?

Cats and dogs

53

How does Strongy present?

Usually mild, but in immunosuppressed hyerinfection may result with severe pneumonitis and duodenitis

54

2nd most common parasite of humans?

Ascariasis

55

Where are Ascaris usually living unattached?

Small intestine

56

Greatest danger of ascaris?

Abnormal migration in body to block biliary ducts/obstruction of small intestine

57

4 small intestinal parasites?

1) Giardia
2) Hookworm
3) Stryongyloides
4) Ascaris

58

How does one get Trichinella spiralis?

Ingestion of improperly cooked pork

59

What do the larvae do in Trichinella?

Penetrate tissues, disseminate in blood, and encyst in muscle

60

In trichinella what do trapped larvae in the lungs cause?

Eosinophillic infiltrate

61

Trichinella has what effect on heart?

Patchy interstitial myocarditis with eosinophilia and giant cells resulting in scarring and heart failure

62

Most effective treatment when dealing with larval migrans syndromes?

Corticosteroids and antihistamines to reduce inflammation

63

Cutaneous larval migrans known as?

Ancylostoma

64

Cutaneous larval migrans associated with?

Hookworms of dog and cat

65

Cutaneous larval migrans is occupational disease of who?

Plumbers, construction workers, duck hunters, and anyone exposed to infected soil

66

What is visceral larval migrans?

Infection of dog and cat ascaris with widespread and damaging dissemination of larvae throughout body

67

Who normally gets visceral larval migrans?

Puppies spread to children

68

What is known as neural larval migrans?

Balisascaris

69

Who gets Balisascaris?

Children who eat dirt and have poor hygiene

70

Lymphatic filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti) is transmitted by what?

Mosquito

71

Where do larvae develop of Lymphatic filariasis?

Lymph channels

72

River blindness is caused by what?

Onchocerca volvulus

73

What does Onchocerca volvulus cause?

Blindness

74

Body lice and head lice cause what 3 disease?

1) Rickettsia prowazeki
2) Rochalimaea quintana
3) Borrellia recurrentis

75

Blue spots indicative of what?

Crab louse

76

Where do Chigger's take up residence?

Hair follicles

77

What causes Chigger intense local inflammatory response?

Digestive enzyme

78

Rhinosporidiosis causes what?

Granulomatous of mucous membranes resulting in polyp formation

79

Rhinosporidiosis is what?

Aquatic protistan