Viral Illnesses 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Viral Illnesses 3 Deck (42):
1

What virus cause Polio?

Picornaviridae

2

What type of virus is picornaviridae?

Nonenveloped virus

3

Where does the picornaviridae virus infect?

Oropharynx

4

Where does the picornaviridae multiply?

Multiples in the intestinal mucous and lymph nodes

5

What causes the paralysis in Polio?

Picornaviridae that invades the CNS and replicates in motor neurons of spinal cord/brainstem

6

What are the cellular receptors of polioviruses?

Members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (Chromosome 19)

7

What are the two polio vaccines?

Salk and Sabin

8

Is the salk vaccine attenuated or inactivated?

Inactivated, but requires booster vaccination

9

IS the sabin vaccine killed or inactivated?

Attenuated, so risk of infection

10

Benefit of oral sabin vaccine?

Greater duration of immunity

11

What does the Sabin vaccine produce?

IgA in the GI tract

12

Rhinovirus binds to what to get access to host?

ICAM-1 found in humans and higher primates on epithelial cells

13

Where is the rhinovirus infection confined to?

Upper respiratory tract due to cool environemnt

14

What is the second most common cause of the common cold?

Coronavirus

15

Does coronavirus go to lower respiratory tract?

Primarily upper respiratory, little effect on lower

16

Where do echovirus and coxsackie virus proliferate?

Lymphoreticular tissues

17

What is the function of neuraminidase?

Releasing virus from host cell, cleaves silica acid

18

Function of hemagglutinin?

Binds to silica acid contain proteins and lipids on most cells.
Mediates entry into cell

19

How are lower respiratory viruses grouped?

Into types A, B, or C based on nucleoprotein

20

Which is the most dangerous grouping of lower respiratory viruses?

Group A

21

What does group A do?

Major cause of pandemic and epidemic flu infections

22

What do groups B and C do?

Mostly infect children

23

What are most deaths due to influenza from?

Secondary bacterial infection due to obstruction

24

What is croup?

Acute febrile illness with inspiratory stridor, hoarseness, and barking cough

25

What causes croup?

Parainfluenza type 3

26

Most common cause of viral pneumonia in children younger than 2 years?

Respiratory syncitial virus

27

Common cause of acute respiratory disease and pneumonia in military recruits?

Adenovirus

28

Red flag for adenovirus histologically?

Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion

29

Most common time for rotavirus to strike?

Time of weaning, due to loss of mothers IgA

30

What types of hepatitis are there?

A, B, C, Delta agent, and E

31

How do you get rabies?

Contamination of open wounds or mucous membranes by saliva of infected animals

32

Is rabies spread person to person?

No

33

What is the exception to rabies no being spread person to person?

Transplanted tissue

34

What causes rabies most in the U.S?

Bites from bats or cats that have bene infected by rabies

35

What has proved to be the one thing to stop a rabies death?

Inducing coma

36

How does rabies get to CNS?

Travels axons

37

How long does it take rabies virus to travel up axons?

weeks

38

What is histologically significant to diagnose rabies?

Neri bodies in nerve cells

39

Only way to truly diagnose rabies?

Direct examination of brain tissue from animal

40

What do you do for somebody with rabies?

Treat with rabies vaccine and rabies immune gammaglobuin

41

Who do you give pre-exposure prophylaxis to?

Veterinarians, wildlife workers, people going to endemic areas

42

Who do you give post-prophylactic care to?

Unvaccinated people with bites