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Flashcards in Bacteria 2 Deck (80):
1

2 examples of common upper respiratory infections caused by normal flora?

1) Ottis media
2) sinusitis

2

What causes upper respiratory infections via normal flora?

Blockage of sinus ostia, estachian tube by virally induced or allergic inflammation

3

What causes invasive Upper respiratory disease in neonates?

E. coli and Group B Strep

4

What causes IURD in children 1-5?

H. influenzae type B

5

What cause IURD in adolscents and young adults?

N. meningitidis

6

What causes IURD in all age groups?

Strep pneumoniae

7

What is the key to pathogenicity for bacteria?

Encapsulation

8

Where does the pathogenesis begin?

Upper respiratory infection

9

What happens after the initial Upper respiratory infection?

Invasion of bacteria into deep tissues and bloodstream

10

What happens when the bacteria is disseminated in the body?

Bacteremia

11

What leads to vascular leakage?

Endothelial and macrophage activation by LPS

12

Vascular leakage leads to what?

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

13

Infections with encapsulated organisms require what that Staph and strep infections don't?

Antibodies or complement

14

What is a splenic condition that increases susceptibility to encapsulated organisms?

Asplenia

15

Where is Pneumococcus found?

Normal Upper respiratory flora

16

What does Pneumococcus look like?

Gram + diplococcus

17

Pneumococcus virulence factors?

Capsule and PspC (Pneumococcal surface protein C)

18

Disease caused by Pneumococcus?

Sepsis and meningitis

19

Where is N. meningitidis?

Exogenous

20

What does N. meningitides look like?

Gram -, diplococcus

21

Virulence factors of N. meningitides?

Capsule and LPS

22

Disease caused by N. meningitides?

DIC, sepsis, meningitis

23

Where is N. gonorrhea found?

Exogenous

24

What does N. gonorrhea look like?

Gram - diplococcus

25

Virulence factors of N. gonorrhea?

Capsule and LOS

26

Diseases of N. gonorrhea?

Septic arthritis

27

Where is H. influenza found?

Normal flora, type B exogenous

28

What does H. influenza look like?

Gram - pleomorphic

29

Virulence factors of H. influenza?

Capsule and LPS

30

Disease caused by H. Influenzae?

Sepsis and meningitis

31

What does invasive disease lead to?

Bacteremia

32

What is found on bacterial capsule that causes Sepsis or DIC?

LPS or PspC

33

Why do encapsulted bacteria and meningitis go to CSF?

No complement for opsonization

34

In sepsis what does LPS stimulate?

Toll Like Receptors to induce systemic cytokine secretion and endothelial cell activation

35

What is DIC?

Systemic coagulation caused by bacteria

36

What limits Gonococci's ability to cause DIC?

They have LOS instead of LPS

37

Most common caused of community acquired pneumonia ?

Strep pneumoniae

38

What special attachment does Strep pneumoniae have on its polysaccharide capsule?

PspC

39

What virulence factor of Strep Pneumoniae inhibits alternate complement pathway?

PspA

40

Who is the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for?

Children younger than 5 and adults with risk factors

41

Who is the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for?

Children two years or older

42

What is one of the main nutritional requirements for Neisseria?

Iron

43

Where is Neiserria found?

Not normal flora, exogenous

44

Incubation time N. meningitides?

Less than a week

45

What is N. meningitidis susceptible to?

Penicillin

46

What causes the petechial rash in N. meningitidis?

Microhemorrhages in capillaries

47

What is Waterhouse Friderichsen syndrome?

Hemorrhage into adrenals

48

Are vaccinations effective for meningococcal disease?

Yes, doesn't cover group B though which is biggest in neonates

49

Why do N. meningitidis vaccines not work in neonates?

Neonates cannot respond to capsular antigen vaccine

50

How does N. Gonorrhea differ from N. Meningitidis?

Different capsule allows different behavior

51

Where does N. Gonorrhea attach?

Columnar and transitional epithelia mucous membranes of genital tract, rectum, and nasopharynx

52

N. Gonorrhea IgA protease allows for what?

Evasion of mucosal immunity

53

Why has it been difficult to make a vaccine for N. Gonorrhea?

Antigenic variability

54

What is a defining characteristic of H. influenza?

Unencapsulated mostly

55

What can make H. influenza dangerous?

Encapsulation and endotoxin

56

What is the window of vulnerability for invasive disease of Type B?

3 months to 3 years due to bad protective antibody response to type B capsular antigens

57

What is a good way to vaccinate toddlers and infants with Type B?

Conjugate capsule with protein

58

What causes Diphtheria?

Corynebacterium diphtheria

59

What causes the membrane formation of Diphtheria?

Local epithelial necrosis which releases exotoxin A

60

What is characteristic of Whooping Cough?

Lymphocytosis

61

What does the exotoxin of Whooping Cough do?

Leads to local ciliary paralysis

62

What does the DPT vaccine do for cases of Whooping Cough?

Gives immunization to Exotoxin

63

What is the Pertussis vaccine called?

Tdap for 10 years and older, DTaP for children younger than 7 years

64

What does Diphtheria look like?

Gram + rod

65

What does the exotoxin do in Diphtheria?

Inhibits protein synthesis and leads to fatty myocardial changes

66

Biggest reason for death with Diphtheria?

Cardiac failure

67

What type of infection are UTIs generally?

Gram negative infections

68

What are the 2 main types of gram - infections?

1)Spread of organisms that have colonized GI tract
2) Contamination of tissues and materials from hospital environment

69

Cause of most uncomplicated UTIs in absence of obstruction?

E. coli

70

What causes suppurative infections of abdominal cavity?

Secondary to obstruction, perforation, and trauma

71

What is Klebsiella pneumonia associated with?

Aspiration in hospital setting

72

Characteristic of Klebsiella and Enterobacter in septicemia?

Association with thick mucoid capsule

73

Defining characterstic of proteus marabilis?

Staghorn pyelonephritis due to chronic pyelonephritis

74

What does Serrate marcescens cause?

Pneumonia and UTIs

75

What defines Pseudomonas aeruginosa histologically?

Blue haze around blood vessels

76

What is the common pathogenic organism in cystic fibrosis?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

77

Outbreak of Legionella associated with?

Community outbreaks associated with contaminated aerosolized water supplies

78

Biggest problem with Legionella?

Fibrinopurulent necrosis of pulmonary tissue

79

How does helicobacter pylori survive in the stomach?

Urease creates protective layer of ammonia around organism

80

What causes gingival infections?

Peptostreptococcus