Flashcards in Lecture 10 Deck (40):
Where is proteus found?
present in human colon as well as in soil and water- colonize in urethra- community/hospital acquired
Does proteus move?
highly motile- produces profuse growth in blood agar plate (swarming effect with expanding rings/waves)
two common species of proteus
proteus vulgaris, proteus mirabilis
What does proteus vulgaris cause because of its high motility?
UTI- climbing infections cause pyelonephritis
What enzyme does proteus vulgaris produce?
urease which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia increasing pH and causing kidney stones
lab diagnosis of proteus vulgaris
culture shows swarming effect putrid odor (fishy and seminal odor)
produces H2S and black colonies in TSI agar
are all species of the urease of proteus vulgaris gram - or +?
Treatment for proteus vulgaris
aminoglycosides and bactrim after antibody sensitivity test
What does pseudomonas cause?
UTI and pneumonia in patients with lowered host defense and hospitalized patients- strict aerobe
Where does pseudomonas grow?
grows in water, resists disinfection, can grow on antiseptic solutions, anesthesia equipment and IV fluids- common nasocomial infection
lab diagnosis of pseudomonas
produces 2 pigments: pyocycanin- blue colored pus shows as blue-green color on agar plate
pyoveridin- yellow pigment which fluoresce under UV light
What do pseudomonas have that facilitates adherence to respiratory mucous membrane?
Where is pseudomonas found?
in soil and water and in some people form normal flora of colon
clinical features of pseudomonas
primarily an opportunistic infection
- common forms in burns of pts
UTI and pneumonia in cystic fibrosis pts
malignant otitis externa in pts who swim
infection of cornea in contact lens users
Treatment for pseudomonas
resistant to many antibiotics- topical silver nitrate/silverdiazine works
Where is enterobactor found?
causes infection during invasive procedure like IV cath, intubation, urinary tract manipulation
What does Bordetella pertusis cause?
whooping cough in children- only human through airborne (highly contagious)
How pertusis infects
organisms attached to ciliated epithelium of URT- do not invade underlying tissue
Clinical symptoms of pertusis
whooping sough is acute tracheo bronchitis
secretes lots of mucous restricted to respiratory tract
Treatment of pertusis
erythromycin, mucolytic agents, O2 therapy, suction of mucous, vaccine available
Gram - rods related to animal sources
brucella, francicella, yersinia
What is Francicella tularensis?
disease of animals- commonly rabbits and deer in US- vector being ticks, mites and lice
Transmission of francicella
ticks maintain transmission by transovarian route- pass bacteria to offspring
humans can accidentally be bitten by vector
What is the disease that francicella causes?
What is Tularemia
ulcer at the site of the bite with low grade fever- GIT and pulmonary infection less common
life long immunity
Treatment for Tularemia
streptomycin or vaccine
What does yersenia pestis cause?
How you contract yersenia pestis
endemic in rodents of europe and asia- common rodents include mice, rats, squirrels, guinea pigs
What does staining of yersenia look like?
G- small rods with bipolar staining (safety pin appearance
Clinical manifestations of yersenia
Bubonic plague: bite site swelling with regional lymph node enlargement and fever, results in septic shock- fatal- BLACK DEATH
Pneumonic plague: by inhalation/septic emboli-- fatal
Treatment for yersenia
SM and TC
Prevention of yersenia
rat control and 72 hour quarantine
What is the most common type of Hemphilus influenza>
What does type B H influenza produce?
serious invasive and inflammatory disease like meningitis
Who does H influenza infect?
humans only- no animal reservoir
How is H influenza transmitted?
airborne droplets infect upper respiratory
What age group does H influenza affect?
young children- leading cause of meningitis in children
Lab diagnosis of H influenza
deduct capsular Ag- Quellong test shows capsular swelling
Treatment for H influenza
ceftrioxone- amoxycillin and clavalunic are alternatives- medication should be started early to prevent neurological complications from meningitis