Lecture 10 Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Lecture 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 10 Deck (40):
1

Where is proteus found?

present in human colon as well as in soil and water- colonize in urethra- community/hospital acquired

2

Does proteus move?

highly motile- produces profuse growth in blood agar plate (swarming effect with expanding rings/waves)

3

two common species of proteus

proteus vulgaris, proteus mirabilis

4

What does proteus vulgaris cause because of its high motility?

UTI- climbing infections cause pyelonephritis

5

What enzyme does proteus vulgaris produce?

urease which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia increasing pH and causing kidney stones

6

lab diagnosis of proteus vulgaris

culture shows swarming effect putrid odor (fishy and seminal odor)
produces H2S and black colonies in TSI agar

7

are all species of the urease of proteus vulgaris gram - or +?

+

8

Treatment for proteus vulgaris

aminoglycosides and bactrim after antibody sensitivity test

9

What does pseudomonas cause?

UTI and pneumonia in patients with lowered host defense and hospitalized patients- strict aerobe

10

Where does pseudomonas grow?

grows in water, resists disinfection, can grow on antiseptic solutions, anesthesia equipment and IV fluids- common nasocomial infection

11

lab diagnosis of pseudomonas

produces 2 pigments: pyocycanin- blue colored pus shows as blue-green color on agar plate
pyoveridin- yellow pigment which fluoresce under UV light

12

What do pseudomonas have that facilitates adherence to respiratory mucous membrane?

glycocalyx

13

Where is pseudomonas found?

in soil and water and in some people form normal flora of colon

14

clinical features of pseudomonas

primarily an opportunistic infection
- common forms in burns of pts
UTI and pneumonia in cystic fibrosis pts
malignant otitis externa in pts who swim
infection of cornea in contact lens users

15

Treatment for pseudomonas

resistant to many antibiotics- topical silver nitrate/silverdiazine works

16

Where is enterobactor found?

causes infection during invasive procedure like IV cath, intubation, urinary tract manipulation

16

What does Bordetella pertusis cause?

whooping cough in children- only human through airborne (highly contagious)

17

How pertusis infects

organisms attached to ciliated epithelium of URT- do not invade underlying tissue

17

Clinical symptoms of pertusis

whooping sough is acute tracheo bronchitis
secretes lots of mucous restricted to respiratory tract
pronounced lymphocytosis

18

Treatment of pertusis

erythromycin, mucolytic agents, O2 therapy, suction of mucous, vaccine available

18

Gram - rods related to animal sources

brucella, francicella, yersinia

18

What is Francicella tularensis?

disease of animals- commonly rabbits and deer in US- vector being ticks, mites and lice

19

Transmission of francicella

ticks maintain transmission by transovarian route- pass bacteria to offspring
humans can accidentally be bitten by vector

20

What is the disease that francicella causes?

Tularemia

21

What is Tularemia

ulcer at the site of the bite with low grade fever- GIT and pulmonary infection less common
life long immunity

22

Treatment for Tularemia

streptomycin or vaccine

23

What does yersenia pestis cause?

plague

24

How you contract yersenia pestis

endemic in rodents of europe and asia- common rodents include mice, rats, squirrels, guinea pigs

25

What does staining of yersenia look like?

G- small rods with bipolar staining (safety pin appearance

26

Clinical manifestations of yersenia

Bubonic plague: bite site swelling with regional lymph node enlargement and fever, results in septic shock- fatal- BLACK DEATH
Pneumonic plague: by inhalation/septic emboli-- fatal

27

Treatment for yersenia

SM and TC

28

Prevention of yersenia

rat control and 72 hour quarantine

29

What is the most common type of Hemphilus influenza>

Type B

30

What does type B H influenza produce?

serious invasive and inflammatory disease like meningitis

31

Who does H influenza infect?

humans only- no animal reservoir

32

How is H influenza transmitted?

airborne droplets infect upper respiratory

33

What age group does H influenza affect?

young children- leading cause of meningitis in children

34

Lab diagnosis of H influenza

deduct capsular Ag- Quellong test shows capsular swelling

35

Treatment for H influenza

ceftrioxone- amoxycillin and clavalunic are alternatives- medication should be started early to prevent neurological complications from meningitis

36

Prevention for H influenza

HIB vaccine given to children