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1

Diseases of Gram negative Neisseria

Neisseria Meningitides and Neisseria Gonorrhea

2

What type of agar does Neisseria need?

chocolate agar (heated blood agar)

3

What is the shape of Neisseria Meningitides?

kidney shape arranged in pairs with wide polysaccharide capsule, strict aerobe

4

Does Neisseria Meningitides contain plasmids?

no plasmids since no exotoxin production

5

How is meningitides transmitted?

airborn droplets- colonize mucous membrane of nasopharynx and URT

6

Where is meningitides common?

crowded places, military camps and student camps

7

virulence factors of meningitides

1. polysaccharide capsule which resists phagocytosis, endotoxin present in cell wall responsible for septic shock and septicemia, and organism produces IgA protease, which helps to attach to mucous membrane

8

What does meningitides cause and describe it

meningitis- fever, headache, nuchal rigidity, disorientation, turbid CSF, leukocytes, organisms inside neutrophils

9

What causes septic shock and describe it

bacteremia- fever, shock, widespread purpura and disseminated intravascular clotting

10

What is the physically demonstrable symptoms of meningitis

Brudzinski's sign- severe neck stiffness causes a patients hips and knees flex when neck is flexed

11

define Kernig's sign

Severe stiffness of the hamstrings causes inability to straighten the leg when the hip is flexed to 90 degrees

12

Where do you do a lumbar puncture?

3rd or 4th lumbar spine

13

What does hemorrhage in adrenal cortex lead to?

adrenal insufficiency known as waterhouse=friedrichen syndrome

14

2 organisms causing meningitis in children

Pneumo and meningo cocci

15

Treatment for meningitis

penicillin G, sulphonamides are also effective

16

Prevention for meningitis

chemoprophylaxis- rifampicin & ciprofloxin , vaccine available- meningo coccal vaccine contains capsular polysaccharides

17

Who is Nis gonorrhoeae symptomatic in?

men and asymptomatic in women

18

Where is Ni Gonorrhoeae found?

in genital tract- less commonly in anaorectal region and oropharynx

19

Examples of virulence factors

pili, cell wall lip oligosachride and IgA protease

20

where does genetic variation occur

in pili and outer membrane proteins as a result of chromosomal rearrangement

21

clinical manifestations of Nis. Gonorrhoeae in men

causes urethritis, painful urination and pus in urine-- gonorrhea- disseminated infection lead to septic arthritis in sexually active men

22

repeated infections of the urethra can lead to what?

urethral stricture-- occluding of the urethra

23

define reiters syndrome

non gonococcal urethritis, arthritis and conjunctivitis which is immunological

24

clinical manifestations of Nis. Gonorrhea in women

mostly asymptomatic- in few it can cause purulent vaginal discharge and inner menstrual bleeding- lead to PID, ectopic pregnancy, salphingitis

25

Can fetuses contract nis. gonorrhoeae?

yes- when passing through the birth canal- severe purulent bilateral conjunctivitis can occur- other STDs can co-exist

26

Treatment for Nis. Gonorrhoeae

Penicillin G is drug of choice- nowadays ceftrioxone is given

27

Prevention of Nis. Gonorrhoeae

use of a condom- there is no vaccine- babies can be given erythromycin drops for eyes

28

List the 4 organisms in the Gram + Category

Bacillus, Clostridium, Corney bacterium diphtheriae and lysteriae momcytogens

29

Which gram + groups are spore forming?

Bacillus and Clostridium

30

Which gram + groups are non-spore forming?

Corney bacterium diptheriae and lysteriae