Flashcards in Lecture 21 Deck (70):
How can some bacterial diseases be prevented?
use of immunization
How is active immunity induced?
by vaccines prepared from bacteria and their products
How is passive immunity induced?
provided by adminstration of preformed Abs in preparation called immunoglobulins
What are bacterial vaccines composed of?
capsular polysaccharides, inactivated exotoxins (toxoids), killed bacteria, attenuated bacteria
At what age is strep pneumonia vaccine given?
individuals greater than 60
What age is HIB vaccine used for?
children between 1-15 months to prevent meningitis
Which serotype of HIB is more serious?
B- causes meningitis in children
Name for formaldehyde treated exotoxin
At what age is diphtheria vaccine given?
children 2, 4, and 6 months of age- booster dose 1 year later
WHat is bordetella pertussis vaccine given to prevent?
What does pertussis vaccine contain?
inactivated toxoid and other proteins
What is purified protein vaccine given for?
against lyme disease- contains purified outer surface proteins of Borrelia Burgdorferri
What does anthrax vaccine contain?
protective antigen purified from organism
What is BCG vaccine given for?
protection against TB- efficacy is doubtful so not given in US
WHat is Francicella tularensis vaccine given for?
protection for tularemia disease
List some killed bacterial vaccines
cholera, yersenia, typhus, Q fever,
WHat type of vaccines are available for Typhoid disease?
ALL- killed, live, polysaccharide
Why would performed antibodies be given?
for immediate protection
Another name for antitoxins
Three types of anti toxins
tetanus, diptheria, botulinum
What would be given to a patient that had a bad contaminated wound?
tetanus antitoxin and tetanus toxoid in two different locations
Define active- passive immunity
Both antitoxin and toxoid will be given
Do drugs help with viral disease?
NO- prevention is key
Two forms of viral vaccines
live attenuated vaccine and killed vaccine
Do viruses have toxoid vaccines?
NO- only bacteria does
Is MMR a live or killed vaccine?
At what age is MMR given?
after the age of 15 months- maternal antibodies may neutralize the vaccine before then
What viruses have killed vaccine?
influenza, hepatitis A, rabies
WHat vaccine do we have for polio?
Both killed and live
Yellow fever, adenovirus, and small pox have what type of vaccine?
Which type of vaccine is more effective?
WHich type of vaccine is stable under room temp?
Is reversion possible with killed vaccine?
NO- only live
What viruses are post exposure vaccine given for?
Rabies and Hep. B- both have long incubation period
Passive immunity for which viral diseases?
rabies, hep B, varicella zoster
live chicken pox vaccine with higher concentration of viruses to prevent shingles in adults
Which capsid proteins on Gardasil have to do with genital warts?
16 and 18
At what age is gardasil given?
Define bacteriologic approach
Bacteria are identified by staining/culturing the organisms and biochemical reactions
Define immunologic approach
Organisms are identified by detection of specific antibodies in patient's serum
What can TB be seen in?
What type of culture is done for strep pyogens?
What culture is done for pneumonia, staph aureus or strep pneumonia or klebsilla and pseudomonas?
What type of culture is done for E. coli, proteus, enterobacter in cases of cystitis or pyelo nephritis?
What type of culture is done for shigella, solmonella or campylobacter?
Define Quellung reaction
specific antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule and allow them to be visualized under a microscope
How do you know the Quellung reaction is positive?
capsule becomes opaque and appears enlarged and swollen
WHat is the Quellung reaction used to identify?
streptococcus pneuomonia , Neisserias meningitis, haemophilus influenzae
Define ELISA test
detect antigens in patient's serum - can also be used to detect and quantify antibodies
Define latex agglutination test
antigen is absorbed onto latex particles which will agglutinate when homologues antiserum is added
What type of antibodies does agglutination test contain?
Ways to identify an antibody with a known antigen
slide/tube agglutination, cold agglutinin, serologic tests for syphilis
Define immunodiffusion test
diagnostic test which involves diffusion of antigen and antibody through a substance such as agar
Which test uses an electric field across the diffusion medium
What line indicates binding on the counter immunoelecrophoresis test?
Define direct fluorescent antibody test
uses antibodies tagged with fluorescent dye that can be used to detect the presence of microorganisms
What is the main test used to detect rabies in animals and requires examination of brain tissue?
direct fluorescent antibody test
serological test for syphilis
VDRL test/RPR test- cardiolipin is the non specific antigen
repeated cycles of heating and cooling DNA with DNA polymerase enzyme results in multiple copies of original DNA
What is PCR useful in?
viral diseases, malignancies, TB and some anaerobic bacteria
killing/removal of all micro organisms including spores
removal of pathogenic organisms (spores not affected) used on inanimate objects only - floors, equipment
chemicals used to remove pathogens from surface of skin, mucous membranes
infection control is brought about by use of......
chemicals or physical agents
3 mechanisms chemicals acts by
disruption of bacterial cell membrane, denaturing the bacterial proteins, denaturing the bacterial nucleic acids
Example of what disrupts bacterial cell membrane
70% alcohol, detergents, phenols
What is used to denature proteins
chlorine, iodine, heavy metals, hydrogen peroxide, formaldeyhyde, weak acids
What is used for denaturing of nucleic acids?
gentian violet- skin antiseptic
physical agents used in infection control?
Heat, radiation, filtrations