Lecture 21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 21 Deck (70):
1

How can some bacterial diseases be prevented?

use of immunization

2

How is active immunity induced?

by vaccines prepared from bacteria and their products

3

How is passive immunity induced?

provided by adminstration of preformed Abs in preparation called immunoglobulins

4

What are bacterial vaccines composed of?

capsular polysaccharides, inactivated exotoxins (toxoids), killed bacteria, attenuated bacteria

5

At what age is strep pneumonia vaccine given?

individuals greater than 60

6

What age is HIB vaccine used for?

children between 1-15 months to prevent meningitis

7

Which serotype of HIB is more serious?

B- causes meningitis in children

8

Name for formaldehyde treated exotoxin

toxoid

9

At what age is diphtheria vaccine given?

children 2, 4, and 6 months of age- booster dose 1 year later

10

WHat is bordetella pertussis vaccine given to prevent?

whooping cough

11

What does pertussis vaccine contain?

inactivated toxoid and other proteins

12

What is purified protein vaccine given for?

against lyme disease- contains purified outer surface proteins of Borrelia Burgdorferri

13

What does anthrax vaccine contain?

protective antigen purified from organism

14

What is BCG vaccine given for?

protection against TB- efficacy is doubtful so not given in US

15

WHat is Francicella tularensis vaccine given for?

protection for tularemia disease

16

List some killed bacterial vaccines

cholera, yersenia, typhus, Q fever,

17

WHat type of vaccines are available for Typhoid disease?

ALL- killed, live, polysaccharide

18

Why would performed antibodies be given?

for immediate protection

19

Another name for antitoxins

anti sera

20

Three types of anti toxins

tetanus, diptheria, botulinum

21

What would be given to a patient that had a bad contaminated wound?

tetanus antitoxin and tetanus toxoid in two different locations

22

Define active- passive immunity

Both antitoxin and toxoid will be given

23

Do drugs help with viral disease?

NO- prevention is key

24

Two forms of viral vaccines

live attenuated vaccine and killed vaccine

25

Do viruses have toxoid vaccines?

NO- only bacteria does

26

Is MMR a live or killed vaccine?

LIVE

27

At what age is MMR given?

after the age of 15 months- maternal antibodies may neutralize the vaccine before then

28

What viruses have killed vaccine?

influenza, hepatitis A, rabies

29

WHat vaccine do we have for polio?

Both killed and live

30

Yellow fever, adenovirus, and small pox have what type of vaccine?

LIVE

31

Which type of vaccine is more effective?

LIVE

32

WHich type of vaccine is stable under room temp?

KILLED

33

Is reversion possible with killed vaccine?

NO- only live

34

What viruses are post exposure vaccine given for?

Rabies and Hep. B- both have long incubation period

35

Passive immunity for which viral diseases?

rabies, hep B, varicella zoster

36

Define Zostavax

live chicken pox vaccine with higher concentration of viruses to prevent shingles in adults

37

Which capsid proteins on Gardasil have to do with genital warts?

16 and 18

38

At what age is gardasil given?

9-26

39

Define bacteriologic approach

Bacteria are identified by staining/culturing the organisms and biochemical reactions

40

Define immunologic approach

Organisms are identified by detection of specific antibodies in patient's serum

41

What can TB be seen in?

sputum sample

42

What type of culture is done for strep pyogens?

throat culture

43

What culture is done for pneumonia, staph aureus or strep pneumonia or klebsilla and pseudomonas?

sputum

44

What type of culture is done for E. coli, proteus, enterobacter in cases of cystitis or pyelo nephritis?

urine

45

What type of culture is done for shigella, solmonella or campylobacter?

stool

46

Define Quellung reaction

specific antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule and allow them to be visualized under a microscope

47

How do you know the Quellung reaction is positive?

capsule becomes opaque and appears enlarged and swollen

48

WHat is the Quellung reaction used to identify?

streptococcus pneuomonia , Neisserias meningitis, haemophilus influenzae

49

Define ELISA test

detect antigens in patient's serum - can also be used to detect and quantify antibodies

50

Define latex agglutination test

antigen is absorbed onto latex particles which will agglutinate when homologues antiserum is added

51

What type of antibodies does agglutination test contain?

lyophilized antibodies

52

Ways to identify an antibody with a known antigen

slide/tube agglutination, cold agglutinin, serologic tests for syphilis

53

Define immunodiffusion test

diagnostic test which involves diffusion of antigen and antibody through a substance such as agar

54

Which test uses an electric field across the diffusion medium

counter immunoelectrophoresis

55

What line indicates binding on the counter immunoelecrophoresis test?

precipitin line

56

Define direct fluorescent antibody test

uses antibodies tagged with fluorescent dye that can be used to detect the presence of microorganisms

57

What is the main test used to detect rabies in animals and requires examination of brain tissue?

direct fluorescent antibody test

58

serological test for syphilis

VDRL test/RPR test- cardiolipin is the non specific antigen

59

Define PCR

repeated cycles of heating and cooling DNA with DNA polymerase enzyme results in multiple copies of original DNA

60

What is PCR useful in?

viral diseases, malignancies, TB and some anaerobic bacteria

61

Define sterilization

killing/removal of all micro organisms including spores

62

Define disinfection

removal of pathogenic organisms (spores not affected) used on inanimate objects only - floors, equipment

63

Define antiseptics

chemicals used to remove pathogens from surface of skin, mucous membranes

64

infection control is brought about by use of......

chemicals or physical agents

65

3 mechanisms chemicals acts by

disruption of bacterial cell membrane, denaturing the bacterial proteins, denaturing the bacterial nucleic acids

66

Example of what disrupts bacterial cell membrane

70% alcohol, detergents, phenols

67

What is used to denature proteins

chlorine, iodine, heavy metals, hydrogen peroxide, formaldeyhyde, weak acids

68

What is used for denaturing of nucleic acids?

gentian violet- skin antiseptic

69

physical agents used in infection control?

Heat, radiation, filtrations

70

Define autoclave

steam under pressure is used to raise temp up to 121 degrees C for 15 minutes- sterilize instruments using this!