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Flashcards in lecture 15 Deck (70):
1

List DNA enveloped viruses

herpes, varicella, cytomegalo, ebstein-Barr, smallpox, Moluscum contagiosum, Hep B

2

List DNA non enveloped viruses

Adeno virus, HPV, Parvo

3

List RNA Enveloped viruses

influenze, measels, mumps, rubella, rabies

4

2 types of Herpes simplex

HSV 1, HSV 2

5

Where does herpes simplex multiply?

inside the nucleus of the host cell- notorious for latent infections

6

Transmission of Herpes simplex

contact through the skin- touch
HSV1 through saliva
HSV2 through sexual contact

7

pathogenesis of HSV

(blisters) virsuses replicate in skin and mucous membrane and produce vesicular lesions

8

Define latent stage for the HSV1

virus hides in trigeminal ganglion (5th cranial nerve)

9

define latent stage for the HSV2

becomes latent in limbo-sacral ganglions. Immunity is not powerful and hence reoccurrence can occur

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What does HSV1 produce?

vesicular lesion above the waist, gingivostomatitis in children, herpes labialis, eye (corneal ulcers) , brain (encephalitis), blisters in fingers

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What does HSV2 cause?

lesions below the waist, genital herpes, neonatal herpes

12

Is the HSV2 incidence rising in the US?

YES

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How do you diagnose HSV?

ELISA test - identifies specific viral proteins/fluorescent antibody staining of infected cells

14

treatment of HSV?

acyclovir

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is there a vaccine for HSV?

NO

16

What does Varicella- zoster virus cause?

chicken pox- primary disease and shingles is the recurrent lesion
disease is self limiting

17

Transmission of Varicella-zoster virus?

through respiratory droplets, direct contact- highly contagious in children- occurs world wide!
occurs when immunity is lower

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Pathogenesis of Varicella-zoster virus?

enters through respiratory tract and spreads through blood to skin- multiply and produce rashes, nuclear inclusion bodies can be seen

19

Can zoster and chicken pox occur more than once?

Not usually, but it has happened

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clinical features of chicken pox

fever, malaise for 2 or 3 days followed by papulo vasicular rashes then spread to head and limbs

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Development of crusts

papules--vesicles--pustules--crusts

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Clinical features of Zoster

painful vesicles on the course of the spinal nerve/trigeminal nerve

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Treatment for chicken pox?

no drugs necessary, self limiting

24

What will giving asprin produce in someone with chicken pox?

may produce Ryes syndrome- encephalopathy and liver damage

25

Treatment for shingles?

acyclovir/velacylovir

26

Prevention of varicella-zoster virus

vaccine- live attenuated vaccine

27

What does Cytomegalo virus cause?

congenital abnormalities in newborns- mostly mental retardation

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How is Cytomegalo virus spread?

in children- through saliva
in adults- through semen/cervical secretions
in pregnant women- through placenta, breast milk, birth canal

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What is the infection of cytomegalo in women and children?

mostly asymptomatic

30

What will infection of Cytomegalo in mothers during first trimester cause?

microcephaly- small head

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Clinical findings of Cytomegalo in children?

microcephaly, seizures, deafness, jaundice, purpura in infants- leading cause of mental retardation

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Clinical findings of Cytomegalo in adults?

mild fever, pneumonia, hepatitis- can cause retinitis in AIDS patients

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Treatment of Cytomegalo

Gancyclovir/Fascornet
Formivericin for retinitis

34

Causes of Ebstein-Barr virus

infectious mononucleosis- world wide distribution

35

Transmission of Ebstein-Barr virus?

through saliva- kissing, enters through oropharynx- blood spread, infects lymphocytes

36

Pathogenesis of Ebstein-Barr virus

infects epithelial cells of pharynx and B lymphocytes

37

What are Downey cells?

Formed from the pathogenesis of Ebstein-Barr virus: cytotoxic T cells attack infected B cells resulting in enlarged distorted B cells

38

Clinical features of Ebstein-Barr virus

fever, sore throat, lymph gland enlargement, lymphocytosis

39

Treatment for Ebstein-Barr virus?

none

40

Is small pox eradicated?

YES

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What does small pox not have?

no carrier state, no asymptomatic infection

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Transmission of small pox

large blisters that will leave pitted scars

43

What does Moluscum congagiosum cause?

small pink colored tumors- self limited, disappears in one month

44

Transmission of Moluscum congagiosum?

Through close contact- common among children

45

What do the lesions look like from Moluscum congagiosum?

flesh colored, dome shaped, and pearly in appearance
1-5 mm in diameter, with a dimpled center

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Removal of lesions from Moluscum congagiosum?

electrocautery/ liquid nitrogen

47

What does Adeno virus infect?

mucosal epithelium of respiratory tract, GI tract, conjunctiva

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What does Adeno virus look like?

it has icesohedral symmetry and 12 protruding fibers from capsid

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Transmission of Adeno virus?

aerosol, fecal-oral route/ direct inoculation into conjunctiva

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Clinical Manifestations of Adeno virus?

there are several serotypes- cause respiratory disease, gastric enteritis, hemorrhagic cystitis, kerato conjunctivitis

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What is adeno virus first isolated from?

adenoids

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Treatment of Adeno virus?

no anti viral drug, most infections resolve spontaneously

53

What does HPV cause?

benign warty growth from squamous cells of skin, 30 serotypes, skin warts, genital warts

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How is HPV transmitted ?

skin to skin contact or by genital contact

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What is the most common STD?

genital warts

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What is HPV 16 associated with?

carcinoma cervix/penis

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What do HIV patients with HPV have a high risk of?

carcinoma cervix

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Treatment of HPV?

podophylin for genital warts, alpha interferon, liquid nitrogen for warts, plantar warts removed surgically

59

Is there a vaccine for HPV?

yes- gardasil

60

What does Parovirus B19 cause?

disease known as Erythema infectious- slapped cheek syndrome

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What is the smallest virus?

Parovirus B 19- single stranded DNA genome

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What does Parovirus B19 look like?

icosohedral symmetry, no sero types

63

Transmission of Parovirus B19

respiratory route, transplacental

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Pathogenesis of Parovirus B19?

infects 2 types of cells, premature RBCs and endothelial cells

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What are premature RBCs?

red cell precursors from bone marrow- causing aplastic anemia

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What do endothelial cells of blood vessels cause?

rash

67

What do immune complexes with IgM/IgG and viruses cause?

arthritis

68

Clinical manifestations of Parovirus?

slapped cheek syndrome in children, low grade fever, coryza, sore throat- resolve in one week, aplastic anemia, fetal infections through placenta, chronic B19 infection

69

Diagnosis of Parovirus

IgM Ab detection/PCR to demonstrate viral DNA

70

Treatment of Parovirus?

no antiviral drug