Flashcards in lecture 15 Deck (70):
List DNA enveloped viruses
herpes, varicella, cytomegalo, ebstein-Barr, smallpox, Moluscum contagiosum, Hep B
List DNA non enveloped viruses
Adeno virus, HPV, Parvo
List RNA Enveloped viruses
influenze, measels, mumps, rubella, rabies
2 types of Herpes simplex
HSV 1, HSV 2
Where does herpes simplex multiply?
inside the nucleus of the host cell- notorious for latent infections
Transmission of Herpes simplex
contact through the skin- touch
HSV1 through saliva
HSV2 through sexual contact
pathogenesis of HSV
(blisters) virsuses replicate in skin and mucous membrane and produce vesicular lesions
Define latent stage for the HSV1
virus hides in trigeminal ganglion (5th cranial nerve)
define latent stage for the HSV2
becomes latent in limbo-sacral ganglions. Immunity is not powerful and hence reoccurrence can occur
What does HSV1 produce?
vesicular lesion above the waist, gingivostomatitis in children, herpes labialis, eye (corneal ulcers) , brain (encephalitis), blisters in fingers
What does HSV2 cause?
lesions below the waist, genital herpes, neonatal herpes
Is the HSV2 incidence rising in the US?
How do you diagnose HSV?
ELISA test - identifies specific viral proteins/fluorescent antibody staining of infected cells
treatment of HSV?
is there a vaccine for HSV?
What does Varicella- zoster virus cause?
chicken pox- primary disease and shingles is the recurrent lesion
disease is self limiting
Transmission of Varicella-zoster virus?
through respiratory droplets, direct contact- highly contagious in children- occurs world wide!
occurs when immunity is lower
Pathogenesis of Varicella-zoster virus?
enters through respiratory tract and spreads through blood to skin- multiply and produce rashes, nuclear inclusion bodies can be seen
Can zoster and chicken pox occur more than once?
Not usually, but it has happened
clinical features of chicken pox
fever, malaise for 2 or 3 days followed by papulo vasicular rashes then spread to head and limbs
Development of crusts
Clinical features of Zoster
painful vesicles on the course of the spinal nerve/trigeminal nerve
Treatment for chicken pox?
no drugs necessary, self limiting
What will giving asprin produce in someone with chicken pox?
may produce Ryes syndrome- encephalopathy and liver damage
Treatment for shingles?
Prevention of varicella-zoster virus
vaccine- live attenuated vaccine
What does Cytomegalo virus cause?
congenital abnormalities in newborns- mostly mental retardation
How is Cytomegalo virus spread?
in children- through saliva
in adults- through semen/cervical secretions
in pregnant women- through placenta, breast milk, birth canal
What is the infection of cytomegalo in women and children?
What will infection of Cytomegalo in mothers during first trimester cause?
microcephaly- small head
Clinical findings of Cytomegalo in children?
microcephaly, seizures, deafness, jaundice, purpura in infants- leading cause of mental retardation
Clinical findings of Cytomegalo in adults?
mild fever, pneumonia, hepatitis- can cause retinitis in AIDS patients
Treatment of Cytomegalo
Formivericin for retinitis
Causes of Ebstein-Barr virus
infectious mononucleosis- world wide distribution
Transmission of Ebstein-Barr virus?
through saliva- kissing, enters through oropharynx- blood spread, infects lymphocytes
Pathogenesis of Ebstein-Barr virus
infects epithelial cells of pharynx and B lymphocytes
What are Downey cells?
Formed from the pathogenesis of Ebstein-Barr virus: cytotoxic T cells attack infected B cells resulting in enlarged distorted B cells
Clinical features of Ebstein-Barr virus
fever, sore throat, lymph gland enlargement, lymphocytosis
Treatment for Ebstein-Barr virus?
Is small pox eradicated?
What does small pox not have?
no carrier state, no asymptomatic infection
Transmission of small pox
large blisters that will leave pitted scars
What does Moluscum congagiosum cause?
small pink colored tumors- self limited, disappears in one month
Transmission of Moluscum congagiosum?
Through close contact- common among children
What do the lesions look like from Moluscum congagiosum?
flesh colored, dome shaped, and pearly in appearance
1-5 mm in diameter, with a dimpled center
Removal of lesions from Moluscum congagiosum?
electrocautery/ liquid nitrogen
What does Adeno virus infect?
mucosal epithelium of respiratory tract, GI tract, conjunctiva
What does Adeno virus look like?
it has icesohedral symmetry and 12 protruding fibers from capsid
Transmission of Adeno virus?
aerosol, fecal-oral route/ direct inoculation into conjunctiva
Clinical Manifestations of Adeno virus?
there are several serotypes- cause respiratory disease, gastric enteritis, hemorrhagic cystitis, kerato conjunctivitis
What is adeno virus first isolated from?
Treatment of Adeno virus?
no anti viral drug, most infections resolve spontaneously
What does HPV cause?
benign warty growth from squamous cells of skin, 30 serotypes, skin warts, genital warts
How is HPV transmitted ?
skin to skin contact or by genital contact
What is the most common STD?
What is HPV 16 associated with?
What do HIV patients with HPV have a high risk of?
Treatment of HPV?
podophylin for genital warts, alpha interferon, liquid nitrogen for warts, plantar warts removed surgically
Is there a vaccine for HPV?
What does Parovirus B19 cause?
disease known as Erythema infectious- slapped cheek syndrome
What is the smallest virus?
Parovirus B 19- single stranded DNA genome
What does Parovirus B19 look like?
icosohedral symmetry, no sero types
Transmission of Parovirus B19
respiratory route, transplacental
Pathogenesis of Parovirus B19?
infects 2 types of cells, premature RBCs and endothelial cells
What are premature RBCs?
red cell precursors from bone marrow- causing aplastic anemia
What do endothelial cells of blood vessels cause?
What do immune complexes with IgM/IgG and viruses cause?
Clinical manifestations of Parovirus?
slapped cheek syndrome in children, low grade fever, coryza, sore throat- resolve in one week, aplastic anemia, fetal infections through placenta, chronic B19 infection
Diagnosis of Parovirus
IgM Ab detection/PCR to demonstrate viral DNA