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1

What type of organism are parasites?

eukaryotic organisms- animal cells

2

WHat is medical parasitology?

deals with eukaryotic organisms that cause disease among humans

3

Define protozoa and metazoa

protoza- unicellular
metazoa- multicellular

4

What are multicellular parasites known as

worms/Helminthes

5

What are the types of protozoa?

intestinal, urogenital, blood and tissue

6

What is Entamoeba Histolytica

Type of intestinal protozoa- known as ameba. Causes amoebic dysentry and liver abscess in humans

7

Who is the reservoir in Entamoeba Histolytica?

humans strictly

8

2 forms of Entamoeba Histolytica

vegetative form and durable form

9

What is the vegetative form?

active and motile- known as trophozoit- multiplies inside host

10

What is the durable form?

cyst- non motile and survive in environment for a few months

11

Where is vegetative form seen?

in intestinal, extra intestinal lesions and in diarrheal stool

12

Where is cystic form seen?

in non-diarrheal stool

13

Pathogenesis of Entamoeba Histolytica?

disease acquired by ingestion of cyst- oral/fecal route- contaminated food and water

14

Pathology of cyst

differentiate in ileum and tend to colonize in caecum and colon

15

Pathology of trophozoite?

invade colonic epithelium- secrete proteolytic enzyme that cause localized necrosis- little inflammation occurs

16

Is Entamoeba Histolytica world wide in distribution?

YES

17

Clinical manifestations of Entamoeba Histolytica

acute infection- dysentery, low abdominal discomfort, flatulence, tenesmus
chronic- occasional diarrhea, weight loss and fatigue

18

Define Amoebic liver abscess

Rt upper quadrant pain, weight loss, fever and tender enlarged liver

19

What happens if right lobe liver abscess bursts?

invade lung through diaphragm, causing lung abscess, anchovy sauce like pus

20

Diagnosis of Entamoeba Histolytica

stool examination may show cyst and vegetative forms- trophozoit contains ingested RBCs

21

Treatment for Entamoeba Histolytica

intestinal amoebiasis and liver abscess- Metronidazol/Tinidazol

22

Prevention of Entamoeba Histolytica

proper disposal of night soil/sanitation

23

Define Giardia lamblia

pear shaped trophozoit with 2 nuclei and 4 pairs of flagellum- suction disc which attaches to cell wall- cyst has 4 nuclei

24

Transmission of Giardia lamblia

ingestions- oral fecal route

25

What does Giardia lamblia cause?

excystation in duodenum, inflammation and mal absorption of protein + fat

26

What are the reservoirs for Giardia lamblia

human and animal - pass cyst in stool

27

Clinical features of Giardia lamblia

non bloody, foul smelling, diarrhea, nausea, anorexia, abdominal cramps, persists for week/months, no fever

28

Treatment for Giardia lamblia

Metronidazol

29

Define Trichomonas vaginalis

Pear shaped trophozoit with single nuclei, 4 flagellum + undulating membrane

30

Is there a vegetative and cystic form for Trich?

just vegetative form