Adenovirus is only virus with ______
A fiber in each of its vertices
The _______fiber is ______ to cell
Adenovirus genome, capsid shape, and envelope
dsDNA, icosahedral, NONenveloped
Adenovirus contains ___on penton base
Adenovirus genome contains _______.
Inverted terminal repititions
Adenovirus replication occurs in the _____
Adenovirus has the same receptor as _____
Coxsackie B (CAR)
Adenovirus enters cell via ______. This happens due to....
ENDOCYTOSIS, due to interaction between PENTON BASE and AV integrins
Adenovirus transcription is a ______ phase event. What are they?
2 phase. (EARLY and LATE)
Adenovirus early phase is before ______
Adenovirus uses ____ to make mRNA
host RNA polymerase
Early adenovirus mRNA's =
"E" - 1a, 1b, 2, 3, 4
Adeno Intermediate Early genes =
E1a and E1b. Their products are needed for transcription of other delayed genes (E2-4)
All early genes are involved in... (3 processes)
DNA synthesis, Altering host expression, Transcription of LATE GENES
Early proteins (from early genes) in adenovirus help block ________
Adeno Clinical Presentations (5)
ACUTE RESP DISEASE, OCULAR DISEASE (Pharyngoconjunctival fever, Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis), ACUTE HEM. CYSTITIS, GASTROENTERITIS, INFECTIONS
Acute respiratory diseases caused by which adenoviruses
1 2 5 6
Acute respiratory diseases are mostly _______
sputum + oral secretion
Fever, rhinorrhea, cough, sore throat.
Adenovirus is major cause of ______
OTITIS MEDIA and tonsilitis
Adenovirus - related ARD widespread in what specific population? What serotypes?
Military recruits -- Serotype 4 and 7
Adenovirus "supercold" serotype
Pharyngoconjunctival fever Adenovirus strains and buzzwords
3 4 7, summercamps, pool fever
Adenovirus Pharyngoconjunctivits eventually...
spreads to the other eye
Adeno Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis strains
8 19 37
Adeno keratoconjunctivitis inubation
Adeno keratoconjunctivitis presents...
Adeno keratoconjunctivitis may result in
residual scarring and visual impairment
Adeno acute hemorrhagic cystitis serotypes
11 + 21
Adeno acute hemorrhagic cystitis Presentation
Adeno Gastroenteritis Serotypes
40 + 42
Common cause of infantile diarrhea in daycare?
Adeno may cause infections in IC patients with..
Transplant, T cell depletion, AB therapy, Lymphopenia
Adeno infection in IC patients can cause _____ which is associated with ___________ in more than 90% if cases
Nephritis, Acute renal failure
Adeno can be transmitted via what (2) routes?
DROPLETS (respiratory) and FECAL-ORAL (GI infctn).... Also can be from hand to eye or from poorly Chlorinated pools
Adenovirus is capable of causing _____ or _____ infection
Lytic or Latent
Adeno Lytic infection infects ___, ____, and _____ cells, which causes _______
Mucoepithelial, Gastrointestinal, Conjunctival cells, causes CELL DAMAGE
Adeno causes ______ (in rats), in which viral DNA does what?
Oncogenic Transformation, virus DNA integrates in host DNA
Adenovirus is a _______ virus, so it is more resistant
Adenovirus is most common in _____ and _______
children and military recruits
Adenovirus treatment, and vaccine?
No treatment -- LIVE ATTENUATED vaccine has been discontinued
Coronavirus enveloped or not?
Corona genome (type and segmented?)
ss+RNA, non segmented
Corona capsid shape
Corona envelope appearance
club shaped glycoproteins (SPIKE, ENVELOPE, MEMRANE proteins)
Corona "Spike" protein function
receptor binding and cell fusion
Corona "Membrane" protein structure and function
Transmembrane, for budding and envelope formation
Corona replicates in the ___
Replication process for Coronavirus: Steps 1 and 2
S protein binds to Aminopeptidase N and a SIALIC ACID containing receptor..... Virus is ENDOCYTOSED
Replication process for Coronavirus: Steps 3 -5
3. Protein synthesis - Early and late phases. 4. Genome associates with rER membrane. 5. Vesicles migrate to surface and are released
Replication process for Coronavirus: Its uses what enzyme? What are it's products?
RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Produces full length NEGATIVE RNA template and SIX individual mRNA's for other Coronavirus proteins
Coronavirus causes ________ (generally)
common cold (URTI)
URTI from coronavirus is a _______ illness
self limited, contagious
Coronavirus replicates best at what temps?
33-35 degrees Celsius
Coronavirus pathogenesis: Infected cell appearance
Vacuolated, damaged cilia, syncitia
Viral load curve during coronavirus infection is followed by curve for __________
_______ is slowly produced after interferon response (in coronavirus infection)
Coronavirus is _____% of URTI. Only ______ cause more.
Despite antibodies to coronavirus, _______ is possible
_______ helps coronavirus survive the GI tract for ________ transmission
Glycoprotein "Corona", Fecal-oral
SARS transmitted via
SARS begins with
high fever and PNA in most cases
SARS Sx (5)
Fever, Ache, dry cough, PNA, Diarrhea in 10-20%
SARS causes _________ by which three methods?
Tissue damage caused by 1. Direct LYTIC effects 2. Syncitial GIANT cells 3. Indirect IMMUNE RESPONSE
Coronavirus found in areas with lots of ______
SARS was introduced to humans how? How do we know this?
From ANIMALS. No Antibodies in people who did not have SARS
Picornavirus genera that have relevance to humans?
Entero, Rhino, Hep A
Rhinovirus have ______ serotypes that exhibit
over 100 serotypes, no geographic pattern
Rhinovirus Capsid shape
Rhinovirus enveloped or not?
No envelope (naked)
Rhinovirus replicates in the
Rhinovirus RNA translated into ______
polyprotein that becomes ENZYMATIC and STRUCTURAL proteins
Most rhinoviruses are _______
Which are more common with rhinoviruses, upper RTIs or Lower RTIs
First symptom of rhinovirus
____ is largely absent in rhinovirus infection
Complications of rhinoviruses
Acute Otitis Media (bacterial), and Exacerbation of Asthma
Rhinovirus has a __% infection rate for those exposed
95% (75% become ill)
Viruses inefficient at ____ when temp's reach _____
Rhinovirus can not survive in the _______
Incubation time for rhinovirus is
Cause of rhinovirus mucosal symptoms is due to
Immune response (IFN gamma and IL-8 stimulate a CYTOKINE cascade)