Lecture 49: Immune Reactions that cause Disease Flashcards Preview

HUBS 191πŸ’ƒβœ¨ > Lecture 49: Immune Reactions that cause Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 49: Immune Reactions that cause Disease Deck (19):
1

Type 1 Allergy (IgE) (ITH):

--> Occurs at higher prevalence in caucasian kiwis than anywhere else
--> When you get exposed to the allergen, a reaction will occur within 10 - 20 minutes, antibodies are already in tissues, they just need allergen
---> Strongly genetically linked
--> In NZ at least 10% have allergies, 25% have bg allergies

2

Examples of Immediate Type Hypersensitivity:

- Allergic rhinitis
- Asthma
- Eczema/urticaria
- Anaphylaxis

3

How allergies develop:

- Mostly non-infectious (except parasites)
Plants: - pollens, nuts
Insects: - saliva + faeces
Food components - milk, eggs, fish
Drugs - penicillins

4

An allergy is always a ______ response.

- Secondary

5

We produce IgE against the allergen, when IgE is produced, it binds to other cells. It binds exclusively to basophils, mast cells, and platelets. There's another extra piece on IgE that binds to these cells. The means mast cells everywhere:

- Mast cells are activated by pollen
- IgE antibodies all over mast cells
- Histamine causes allergy
- Allergen coming in, binding to IgE, and causing cells to degranulate

6

Asthma:

- Constricted airway in asthma
- Mucus blocking up your lungs
- Smooth muscle contracts
- You can breathe in but can't breathe out
- NEED ADRENALINE ASAP

7

Eczema:

- Inflammation bc scratching

8

Diagnosis of Immediate Type Allergy:

- Wheel and Flare reaction 20 to mins after injection of allergen (on back)

9

Children are at high risk for developing allergies

--> Bursts

10

Type II Allergy - Cytotoxic

- Haemolytic anaemia: all red blood cells are covered in antibodies
- Reticulocytes --> baby RBC's
- Spherocytes --> Old dying RBC's
- Defective B Cells
- Goodpasture's Syndrome
- Defective Kidney's

11

Type III Allergy:

- Occurs when antigen gets into capillaries, kidneys, or joints
- Antibody-horse protein complex
- Systemic Lupus: Release antigen from yourself, when you get sunburnt, HUGE inflammation
- Immune complexes

12

Rheumatoid Arthritis:

- Production of immune complex in your joints, immune cells come to help out, mess up your joints

13

Delayed Type Hypersensitivity:

- Involves TH cells and MΓΈ
- Takes 24 hours for response
- Red blistery lump

14

Leprosy:

- T Cells + Macrophage galore

15

Severe dermatitis of the hands...0

- Skin peeling off
- T Cell response

16

Type V Allergy: Not Cytotoxic, Not Immune Complex:

-This disease was discovered in NZ
- Immunostimulatory: Grave's DISEASE
- Feedback loop
- Antibody against TSH

17

Grave's Disease:

- Eyes protrude and feel dry
- Thyroid gland produces too much thyroid
- Baby has big eyes just like mum, will return to normal around 4 months
- Passive antibody causing disease in baby

18

Type I Diabetes Mellitus:

- Cells in pancreas destroyed
- Cytotoxic T Cells react to (B) cells in pancreas (Beta Cells --> produce insulin)

19

Immunodeficient animals:

- A nude rat
- Abnormal Epithelial Cells - can't express hair
- Thymus, not many T Cells