Lecture 48: Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 48: Immunity Deck (16):
1

4 Ways We Can Acquire Immunity:

- Natural: Active (infection) + Passive (breastfeeding)
- Artificial: Active (vaccination) + Passive (put someone else's antibodies in your system = monoclonal antibodies)

2

We produce monoclonal antibodies in a _____.

- Mouse

3

Why do we require boosters?

- To increase immune reactivity
- Active Immunisation
- This gives you memory cells, better response next time round

4

Using serum therapy, tetanus prevalence went way down during WWI - WWII. This is an example of ______ immunisation. Then attenuated viruses caught on with some strains.

- Passive

5

Does exposing people to killed viruses work so well?

- No

6

Milestones in Vaccinations:

- Chinese - Snake Venom
- Lady Montague - Variolation - Smallpox
- Benjamin Jesty (Cow pox inoculation)
- Louis Pasteur - Attenuation
(Cholera)
- Toxins - Toxoids (Tetanus)
- Capsular Vaccines (Meningitis)
- Virus like particles (Papilloma Virus)

7

Prevalence of Polio:

- Introduction of vaccines = now no polio in the US

8

Prevalence of Measles:

- Introduction of vaccine
- Sporadic outbreaks in Auckland but waaaay less than in the past

9

How do we make vaccines?

- Attenuate them (lose virulence factors, keep antigens)
- Yeast Cell synthesises antigen (recombinant technology)
- Multiple Antigens Being Presented on a Cell
- DNA Vaccines (plasmid enters human cell which synthesises antigen)

10

Massive drop in cervical cancer caused by HPV

- Thanks to Frazer and Zhou

11

Chemical Adjuvants:

- Increase Inflammation
- Slow Release of antigen
- Increase mΓΈ - T Cell Interaction
- iNCREASE apc activity

12

Booster vaccinations:

- Essential to give at least 2, may give 3 or more if vaccine is killed

13

When do we vaccinate?

- Depends on age, different vaccines for ages

14

In the future...

- New generation vaccines for:
- Cancer, allergy, autoimmunity, immunocontraception

15

Backlash against the use of vaccines:

- Prevalence dropped, but the vaccine cause several side effects

16

Resistance to vaccination:

- Vaccines have a hugely positive impact