Flashcards in Lecture 48: Immunity Deck (16)
4 Ways We Can Acquire Immunity:
- Natural: Active (infection) + Passive (breastfeeding)
- Artificial: Active (vaccination) + Passive (put someone else's antibodies in your system = monoclonal antibodies)
We produce monoclonal antibodies in a _____.
Why do we require boosters?
- To increase immune reactivity
- Active Immunisation
- This gives you memory cells, better response next time round
Using serum therapy, tetanus prevalence went way down during WWI - WWII. This is an example of ______ immunisation. Then attenuated viruses caught on with some strains.
Does exposing people to killed viruses work so well?
Milestones in Vaccinations:
- Chinese - Snake Venom
- Lady Montague - Variolation - Smallpox
- Benjamin Jesty (Cow pox inoculation)
- Louis Pasteur - Attenuation
- Toxins - Toxoids (Tetanus)
- Capsular Vaccines (Meningitis)
- Virus like particles (Papilloma Virus)
Prevalence of Polio:
- Introduction of vaccines = now no polio in the US
Prevalence of Measles:
- Introduction of vaccine
- Sporadic outbreaks in Auckland but waaaay less than in the past
How do we make vaccines?
- Attenuate them (lose virulence factors, keep antigens)
- Yeast Cell synthesises antigen (recombinant technology)
- Multiple Antigens Being Presented on a Cell
- DNA Vaccines (plasmid enters human cell which synthesises antigen)
Massive drop in cervical cancer caused by HPV
- Thanks to Frazer and Zhou
- Increase Inflammation
- Slow Release of antigen
- Increase mø - T Cell Interaction
- iNCREASE apc activity
- Essential to give at least 2, may give 3 or more if vaccine is killed
When do we vaccinate?
- Depends on age, different vaccines for ages
In the future...
- New generation vaccines for:
- Cancer, allergy, autoimmunity, immunocontraception
Backlash against the use of vaccines:
- Prevalence dropped, but the vaccine cause several side effects