Lecture 17: Organisation and subdivisions of the nervous system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 17: Organisation and subdivisions of the nervous system Deck (25):
1

The myelin sheath in the CNS is made by:

- Oligodendrocytes

2

The part of neurotransmission that is carried out through a chemical signal is called

- Synapse

3

Information that travels into the CNS is called:

- Afferent / Ascending

4

The part of a neuron that makes the decision about whether to propagate an action potential in response to inputs is called:

- Axon hillock

5

What is somatic information?

- Stuff that we are aware of / have control over
- Somatic efferent (motor)
- Somatic afferent (sensory)

6

What happens under autonomic control?

- Stuff we are not aware of / have no control over
- Autonomic efferent (motor)
- Autonomic afferent (sensory) / visceral sensory

7

What're the two autonomic efferent pathways?

- Sympathetic
- Parasympathetic

8

What are the five features of the somatic motor (efferent) division?

- Voluntary control
- One neuron between CNS and effector
- Cell body in spinal cord (CNS)
- Axon in spinal nerves (PNS)
- Effectors (things that is controlled by nerve) skeletal muscle fibres

9

A single motor neuron has it's cell body in the _____ (____) and it's axon in a ______ (____).

- Spinal Cord (CNS)
- Peripheral Nerves (PNS)

10

What is the Acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmitter used for?

- Communication between motor neuron and skeletal muscle

11

What is the name of synapse space between a neuron and muscle?

- Neuromuscular Junction

12

What is a motor unit?

- Neuron(s) + muscle fibre(s)

13

Can a single muscle fibre be innervated by several neurons?

- NO

14

What are the features of the Autonomic Nervous System?

- Involuntary control
- Two neurons between CNS and effector
- Neuron #1 has cell body in CNS and axon in PNS
- Neuron #2 has cell body in PNS and axon in effector cell

15

What are the features of Neuron #1 (Autonomic)?

- Synapse in Autonomic Ganglion
- Myelinated
- Pre-ganglionic neuron
- Neurotransmitter = ACh
- Call body in CNS
- Axon extends outside CNS

16

What are the features of Neuron #2 (Autonomic)?

- Cell body in PNS (autonomic ganglion)
- Axon extends to effector organ
- Synapse on effector organ
- Neurotransmitters = ACh / Noradrenaline
- Unmyelinated (because axons = small, don't need myelin to speed up conduction velocity)

17

What is the function of the sympathetic autonomic system?

- Prepares the body for acute/stress responses
- Fight of flight

18

What are the effects of the sympathetic nervous system?

- Increased heart rate
- Constricted blood vessels
- Decreased gastric motility / salivation
- Increased pupil size / sweating

19

What are the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system?

- Decreased heart rate / pupil size
- Increased gastric motility / salivation

20

What is the function of the parasympathetic autonomic system?

- Prepares the body for rest and digest

21

In the sympathetic nervous system what neurotransmitter is secreted by neuron #2 to the effector?

- Noradrenaline / Norepinephrine

22

In the parasympathetic nervous system what neurotransmitter is secreted by neuron #2 to the effector?

- Acetylcholine (ACh)

23

What are the axon size differences in parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons?

- In a parasympathetic neuron

#1 has a short axon
#2 has a long axon

- In a sympathetic neuron

#1 has a long axon
#2 has a short axon

24

What occurs in the sympathetic chain ganglia?

- Synapse between neuron #1 (preganglionic) and neuron #2 (postganglionic) takes place

25

There are _____ divisions in the parasympathetic nervous system, exit from CNS

- Two (Cranial + Sacral)

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