Lecture 37: Blood Glucose Concentration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 37: Blood Glucose Concentration Deck (18):
1

The pancreas is an _____ and _____ gland.

- Endocrine
- Exocrine

2

In the pancreas, the ____ cells are important for insulin, and the ____ cells are important for glucagon.

- Beta
- Alpha

3

As blood glucose level increases, beta cells secrete _____ into the bloodstream so that ____ _____ and the ____ take up glucose. The _____ is responsible for storing glucose as glycogen.

- Insulin
- Body Cells
- Insulin
- Liver

4

Main role of insulin is to regulate ____ ____.

- Fuel storage

5

Beta cells are both the ____ and _____ of the blood glucose homeostatic system.

- Sensor
- Integrator

6

Target cells of insulin include:

- Muscle & Adipose (fat) Cells
- Liver cells

7

Too much glucose in the fat cells = storage of _______.

- Triglycerides (fat)

8

Once blood glucose concentration falls, the beta cells sense this and...

- Insulin is no longer secreted

9

Glucagon regulates ____ ____.

- Fuel release

10

Pancreatic islet ____ cells secrete _______ when the blood glucose concentration is low. The target cells are the ______ cells which catalyses the breakdown of _____, ______ and ketone synthesis.

- Alpha
- Glucagon
- Liver
- Glycogen
- Glucose

11

What is the difference between glycogen and glucagon?

- Glycogen = stored form of glucose
- Glucagon = hormone

12

Hormones that also increase BGC (blood glucose concentration):

- Growth hormone
- Adrenaline
- Cortisol

13

What mechanism does insulin use (simple)?

- Insulin binds to it's receptor
- It opens up a glucose channel
- Glucose enters cell through glucose channel

14

What mechanism does insulin use (complicated)?

- Insulin binds to it's receptor, and becomes phosphorylated
- Stimulates another protein to activate PI-3 kinase
- This binds to a storage vesicle of glucose transporters
- This transporter moves to the membrane
- Channel opens, glucose enters
- If the cell is inactive, glycogen is stored in cell
- If the cell is active, they can use glucose as an energy source
- This can only happen if there are working insulin receptors

15

What causes insulin resistance?

- Lipid accumulation
- No glucose channels in the membrane
- Insulin still binds to receptors but can't go into the cell

16

Long term insulin resistance leads to...

- Impaired beta cell function
- Beta cell compensation occurs and beta cells get bigger so they can pump out more insulin

17

Type I Diabetes Mellitus:

- Insulin producing beta-cells have been destroyed and insulin levels are low
- Glucose in urine
- High blood glucose
- Insulin injections

18

Type II Diabetes Mellitus:

- Beta cells become overworked, don't produce as much insulin anymore
- Cells are resistant to insulin's signal to store fuel
- Treatment includes insulin injections, drugs promoting insulin release such as incretins

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