Lecture 34: Anterior Pituitary Hormones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 34: Anterior Pituitary Hormones Deck (17):
1

Anterior pituitary hormones:

- FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
- LH (Luitenizing Hormone)
- Growth Hormone
- TSH
- Prolactin
- ACTH

2

The Somatotroph endocrine cell secretes...

- Growth Hormone

3

The Mammotroph endocrine cell secretes...

- Prolactin

4

Feedback regulation of APG:

- Hypothalamus
- Releasing Hormone
- APG
- Pituitary hormone
- Target Organ
- Hormone
- Effect

5

Negative Feedback Regulation of Prolactin:

- Dopamine neurons in the hypothalamus
- Dopamine released at median eminence
- Prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary gland
- Prolactin (back to beginning, negative feedback system using 2 seperate neurons: 1 activation, 1 turning it back off again)
- Principal regulator is prolactin inhibiting hormone
- PIH is dopamine
- Prolactin stimulates PIH secretion to inhibit prolactin secretion

6

Functions of prolactin...

- Stimulation of Breast development
- Stimulation of milk synthesis

7

Prolactin =
Oxytocin =

- Milk synthesis
- Milk ejection

8

Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion:

- Hypothalamus:
- SS = somatostatin neurons (will switch off) & GHRH neurons
- IGF-1 (Somatrophs) act on both neurons
- GH+
- Livee

9

When is most growth hormone secreted?

- During Sleep
- Bursts during the day
- Gender difference

10

GH concentrations are higher in _____ than _____.

- Children
- Adults

11

Growth hormone is a _____-_____ hormone.

- Water-soluble
- Peptide

12

Growth Hormone receptor is:

- Dimer
- Becomes rigid once growth hormone is bound

13

Effects of growth hormone:

- Stimulates bone growth, muscles and other tissues stimulating cell division (indirect)
- Stimulates protein synthesis (direct)
- Increases blood glucose by stimulating glucose synthesis, inhibiting cellular uptake of glucose (direct)
- Increases triglyceride breakdown and free fatty acid mobilisation in adipose tissue (direct)

14

Endocrine disorders associated with growth hormone:

- Hyposecretion: too little
- Hypersecretion: too much secretion
- Dwarfism
- Gigantism
- Hormone Receptors:
Hyposensitive: little (or no) response
Hypersensitive: respond too much

15

Excess GH in adulthood leads to...

- Thickening of bones
- Soft tissues of hands, feet and face
- (Acromegaly)

16

Other hormones important for growth:

- Thyroid hormone:
Essential for nervous system development (cretinism) = mental retardation
Increases basal metabolic rate
- Insulin
Glucose metabolism
- Cortisol
- Testosterone / Estrogen
Essential for puberty

17

Compare and contrast pituitary hormone secretion:

- Posterior Lobe:
Neural input from hypothalamus stimulates AP frequency
Action potentials stimulate release of specific stored hormones
Released hormone travels in the blood to influence the activity of target cells

- Anterior Lobe: