Flashcards in Lecture 34: Anterior Pituitary Hormones Deck (17)
Anterior pituitary hormones:
- FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
- LH (Luitenizing Hormone)
- Growth Hormone
The Somatotroph endocrine cell secretes...
- Growth Hormone
The Mammotroph endocrine cell secretes...
Feedback regulation of APG:
- Releasing Hormone
- Pituitary hormone
- Target Organ
Negative Feedback Regulation of Prolactin:
- Dopamine neurons in the hypothalamus
- Dopamine released at median eminence
- Prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary gland
- Prolactin (back to beginning, negative feedback system using 2 seperate neurons: 1 activation, 1 turning it back off again)
- Principal regulator is prolactin inhibiting hormone
- PIH is dopamine
- Prolactin stimulates PIH secretion to inhibit prolactin secretion
Functions of prolactin...
- Stimulation of Breast development
- Stimulation of milk synthesis
- Milk synthesis
- Milk ejection
Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion:
- SS = somatostatin neurons (will switch off) & GHRH neurons
- IGF-1 (Somatrophs) act on both neurons
When is most growth hormone secreted?
- During Sleep
- Bursts during the day
- Gender difference
GH concentrations are higher in _____ than _____.
Growth hormone is a _____-_____ hormone.
Growth Hormone receptor is:
- Becomes rigid once growth hormone is bound
Effects of growth hormone:
- Stimulates bone growth, muscles and other tissues stimulating cell division (indirect)
- Stimulates protein synthesis (direct)
- Increases blood glucose by stimulating glucose synthesis, inhibiting cellular uptake of glucose (direct)
- Increases triglyceride breakdown and free fatty acid mobilisation in adipose tissue (direct)
Endocrine disorders associated with growth hormone:
- Hyposecretion: too little
- Hypersecretion: too much secretion
- Hormone Receptors:
Hyposensitive: little (or no) response
Hypersensitive: respond too much
Excess GH in adulthood leads to...
- Thickening of bones
- Soft tissues of hands, feet and face
Other hormones important for growth:
- Thyroid hormone:
Essential for nervous system development (cretinism) = mental retardation
Increases basal metabolic rate
- Testosterone / Estrogen
Essential for puberty