Lecture 8: Joint Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 8: Joint Structure Deck (15)

General Cartilage Composition

- Collagen fibres in a ground substance
- Chondrocytes live in lacuna
- Nutrients diffused through matrix when joint moves


Describe the structure of hyaline cartilage

- Collagen fibres are barely visible
- High water content in matrix


Describe the function of hyaline cartilage

- Resist compression
- Provide smooth frictionless surface
- Moulds where there's articulation


Describe the structure of Fibrocartilage. Give examples

- Collagen fibres bundled in matrix
- Orientation of fibres aligns with stresses
- eg. meniscus in knee joint deepens articulation


Describe the function of Fibrocartilage

- Resists compression and tension
- Can adapt shape based on stresses


What is bony congruence? What effect does it have on soft tissue?

- The bone surfaces that articulate
- More soft tissue is needed where there is less bony congruence, to enable movement
- More BC = stable joint (hip)


Describe the function of the meniscus

- Contains concave discs of fibrocartilage
- Deep articulation = more surface area for articulation and movement
- Spreads weight over higher area


What is a joint?

- Holds bones together
- Found where bones meet / articulate
- Involves soft tissue
- Allows free / controlled movement


What happens when the meniscus is moved?

- Weight is concentrated on a smaller area


What type of joint is found in the intervertebral disc?

- Fibrocartilage (between disc bodies)


Why is fibrocartilage found between vertebral discs and not hyaline cartilage?

- Disc is attached to outside of vertebral bodies
- When we move our torso we need bones to be held together (tensile forces)


What is the nucleus pulposus?

- The inner core of the vertebral disc made of gel-like substance
- Moves like a ball bearing, helping to resist compressing forces


What are some features of tendons and ligaments?

- Collagen (aligned to wear stresses are)
- Fibroblasts + (cytes)
- Function = Resist tension
- Able to heal self but very VERY slowly compared to bone


Describe the function of ligaments and give an example

- Bone to bone
- Restrict movement
- Movement is restricted "away from itself"
- eg. ankle joint - lateral resists adduction


Describe the function of tendons and give examples

- Muscle to Bone
- Function = facilitate and control movement
- Contraction
- eg. contracting biceps, tendon at distal end inserts into radius, pulls bone, in posterior part of hand insert into phalanges, calcaneus tendon (achilles heel)

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