Lecture 32: Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 32: Endocrine System Deck (15):
1

Endocrine System:

- Regulates internal environment by secreting hormones that travel through the bloodstream to target areas

2

Hormones are _____ _______ regulators:

- Long distance

3

Major endocrine glands include:

- Hypothalamus
- Pituitary Gland
- Thyroid Gland
- Adrenaline Glands

4

Lil hormone pathway:

- Hormone secreting cell secretes hormone
- Hormone travels through blood stream
- Targets cells in one or more distant places in the body

5

Hormones are...

- Chemical messengers produced in one location and transported to a second location (target cells) where they elicit an effect

6

Water-soluble hormones include...they are made....

- Peptides
- Catecholamines
- And stored inside the cell until required

7

Lipid-soluble hormones include.....

- Steroids
- Thyroid hormones

8

The difference between steroids and thyroid hormones...

- Steroids aren't made until required
- Thyroid hormones are stored and released when required

9

How do water soluble hormones have an effect on cells?

- Water soluble hormone recognises it's receptor protein
- Binds and changes receptor protein to change shape slightly
- This activates another protein inside the cell that is attached to the receptor protein
- Activates specific transporters
- Domino effect inside the cell

10

Give an example of a water soluble hormone having an effect on a cell:

- Epinephrine has multiple effects in mediating the body's response to short-term stress
- Epinephrine binds to receptors on the plasma membrane of liver cells
- This triggers the release of messenger molecules that activates enzymes and result in the release of glucose into the bloodstream

11

How do lipid-soluble hormones have an effect on a cell?

- Hydrophobic, lipid-soluble
- Easily goes through plasma membrane
- Once inside cell it can bind to specific receptor protein
- That receptor protein is always a transcription factor
- This binds to the promoter in the nucleus and makes mRNA
- Makes protein

12

Which has the quickest response: Water-soluble hormones or lipid-soluble hormones?

- Water-soluble

13

How do hormones have a specific effect on their specific target cell?

- Hormone = key
- Receptor = lock
- Specific matching system
- A hormone can only affect cells with specific receptors for that hormone

14

Regulation of target cell sensitivity:

- Sensitivity of a target cell depends on the number of receptors expressed for that hormone
- Receptors are constantly degraded and synthesized to ensure efficiency
- Provides a method to change receptor number when needed
- Synthesis > Degradation --> Up-regulation
- Synthesis Down-regulation

15

Hormones are slower than the neuronal system because of...

- Travelling distance
- They have to be secreted