Lecture Exam 1 - Chapters 1 & 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Exam 1 - Chapters 1 & 3 Deck (70):
1

__________ - the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another

Anatomy

2

__________ - function; study of how body parts work and carry out activities

Physiology

3

__________ - study of large structures visible with the naked eye, such as the heart, kidneys, bones, and the liver.

Gross Anatomy

4

Gross Anatomy (__________ ) – study of large structures visible with the naked eye, such as the heart, kidneys, bones, and the liver.

macroscopic

5

-Gross Anatomy-

__________- focuses on the anatomy of one particular area. For example, if we were studying the arm, we would study the bones, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels found in that area

Regional anatomy

6

-Gross Anatomy-

Regional anatomy – focuses on the anatomy of one particular area. For example, if we were studying the arm, we would study the __________, muscles, __________, and blood vessels found in that area.

-bones
-nerves

7

-Gross Anatomy-

__________ – study of individual organ systems. For example, when we study the nervous system, we’ll learn about the brain, spinal cord, and nerves

Systemic anatomy

8

-Gross Anatomy-

Systemic anatomy – study of individual organ systems. For example, when we study the nervous system, we’ll learn about the __________, spinal cord, and __________

-brain
-nerves

9

-Gross Anatomy-

__________ – study of general form and superficial markings
-When someone flexes their muscles for us, we can see the outline of individual muscles

Surface anatomy

10

-Gross Anatomy-

Surface anatomy – study of general form and superficial markings
-When someone flexes their muscles for us, we can see the __________ of individual muscles

outline

11

How else could surface anatomy be used?
Check pulse in __________ that are near the surface, finding veins to draw blood, and using stethoscope to listen to __________ and lungs

-arteries
-heart

12

__________ – study of structures that cannot be seen with the naked eye.

Microscopic anatomy

13

-Microscopic anatomy-

__________ – study of cells

Cytology

14

-Microscopic anatomy-

__________ – study of tissues, such as connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue

Histology

15

Two main divisions of Microscopic anatomy are:
-
-

-Cytology
-Histology

16

Three main ways to study gross anatomy are:
-
-
-

i. Regional
ii. Systemic
iii. Surface

17

__________ – covers changes that occur over time

Developmental anatomy

18

-Developmental anatomy-

Main division is __________, which is the study of development between conception and birth

embryology

19

-Developmental anatomy-

Main division is embryology, which is the study of development between __________ and __________

-conception
-birth

20

__________ – includes specialized studies used in a clinical setting

Clinical anatomy

21

-Clinical anatomy-

__________ – changes in the body during illness

Medical (or pathological) anatomy

22

-Clinical anatomy-

__________ – study of internal structures using x-ray, CT scans, and MRIs

Radiographic anatomy

23

Two main divisions of Clinical anatomy are:
-
-

-Medical anatomy
-Radiographic anatomy

24

__________ physiology – study of the function of a particular organ or organ system

-Systemic and special

25

Systemic and special physiology-
Examples include renal (kidneys), _________ (nervous system), cardiophysiology (heart and blood vessels), and __________ physiology (lungs)

-neurophysiology
-respiratory

26

__________ physiology – study of the functions of cells

Cell

27

__________ physiology – study of the effects of disease on body functions

Pathological

28

6 Levels of organization of an organism:

1. Chemical
2.
3. Tissue
4.
5. Organ systems
6. Organism

-Cellular
-Organ

29

6 Levels of organization of an organism:

1. Chemical
2. Cellular
3.
4. Organ
5. Organ systems
6.

-Tissue
-Organism

30

6 Levels of organization of an organism:

1.
2. Cellular
3. Tissue
4. Organ
5.
6. Organism

-Chemical
-Organ systems

31

__________ – ability of the body to detect and respond to changes in the environment (stimuli; stimulus is singular)

Responsiveness (irritability or excitability)

32

Responsiveness (__________ ) – ability of the body to detect and respond to changes in the environment (stimuli; stimulus is singular)

irritability or excitability

33

__________ – sum of all chemical processes in the body

Metabolism

34

__________ – breaking something down from complex to simple

Catabolism

35

__________ – breakdown of proteins into amino acids

Catabolism

36

__________ – building up from simple to complex

Anabolism

37

__________ – Joining of amino acids to form proteins

Anabolism

38

__________ – defined as the existence and maintenance of a stable internal environment in an ever-changing external environment

Homeostasis

39

Homeostasis – defined as the existence and maintenance of a stable internal __________ in an ever-changing __________ environment

-environment
-external

40

Three parts of Homeostatic regulation:
-
-
-

-Receptor
-Control center
-Effector

41

- Homeostatic regulation -

__________ – sensor that detects changes in the environment (stimuli) –Skin, ears

Receptor

42

- Homeostatic regulation -

__________ – receives and processes information, makes a “decision”, then sends out commands

Control center

43

- Homeostatic regulation -

__________ – carries out the commands sent out by the control center

Effector

44

__________ feedback loop – action of the effector shuts off the original stimulus when normal conditions return

Negative

45

__________ feedback loop – action of the effector increases the intensity of the original stimulus

Positive

46

__________ - Furnace set at 70, kicks on at 69 and shuts back off at 70))

Negative feedback loop

47

__________ - Makes the situation continue

Positive feedback loop

48

-Negative feedback loop-

Receptors in the body sends signals to the brain about body __________. If the temp is too __________, the brain sends signals to __________ glands and muscles – sweat glands release water to the surface and blood from muscles travels close to the skin. Sweat evaporates and heat radiates from the skin to cool us down.

-temperature
-high
-sweat

49

-Positive feedback-

during child labor, a hormone called oxytocin is released, which intensifies contractions. __________ of the uterus cause more oxytocin to be released, which again causes __________ contractions

-Contractions
more

50

__________ – subjective changes in body functions; not observable (i.e. headache, nausea, anxiety)

Symptoms

51

Symptoms – subjective changes in body functions; not observable (i.e. __________, nausea, __________)

-headache
-anxiety

52

__________ – objective, measurable changes (high BP, fever, swelling)

Signs

53

Signs – objective, measurable changes (high __________, fever, __________ )

-Blood Pressure
-swelling

54

- 4 concepts of cell theory -

1. __________ are the basic structural and functional units of living __________

-Cells
-organisms

55

- 4 concepts of cell theory -

2. Activity of an __________ depends on the individual and collective __________ of cells

-organism
-activity

56

- 4 concepts of cell theory -

3. __________ of cells depend on their __________

-Activities
-structure

57

- 4 concepts of cell theory -

4. __________ of life depends on __________ reproduction

-Continuity
-cellular

58

- 3 basic parts of a cell -

__________ – outside wall of the cell

Cell membrane

59

Cell membrane 4 basic functions:

a. __________ cell’s internal environment from the __________ environment
b. Regulates flow of materials in and out of the cell
c. Maintains appropriate internal environment
d. Plays important role in communication both with other cells and with the external environment

-Separates
-external

60

Cell membrane 4 basic functions:

a. Separates cell’s internal environment from the external environment
b. __________ flow of __________ in and out of the cell
c. Maintains appropriate internal environment
d. Plays important role in communication both with other cells and with the external environment

-Regulates
-materials

61

Cell membrane 4 basic functions:

a. Separates cell’s internal environment from the external environment
b. Regulates flow of materials in and out of the cell
c. __________ appropriate __________ environment
d. Plays important role in communication both with other cells and with the external environment

-Maintains
-internal

62

Cell membrane 4 basic functions:

a. Separates cell’s internal environment from the external environment
b. Regulates flow of materials in and out of the cell
c. Maintains appropriate internal environment
d. Plays important role in __________ both with other cells and with the __________ environment

-communication
-external

63

- 3 basic parts of a cell -

__________ – Consists of all contents of a cell between the plasma membrane and nucleus

Cytoplasm

64

- 3 basic parts of a cell -

Cytoplasm – Consists of all contents of a cell between the __________ membrane and __________

-plasma
-nucleus

65

- 3 basic parts of a cell -

3 parts of Cytoplasm:
1.
2. Organelles
3.

1. Cytosol
3. Inclusions

66

- 3 basic parts of a cell -

__________ – control center for cell functions

Nucleus

67

- 3 basic parts of a cell -

Nucleus:
1. Has information to __________ all proteins needed by the cell
2. Contains the __________ – genetic material
3. Dictates type and amount of __________ to be made

-manufacture
-DNA
-proteins

68

-6 functions of Membrane proteins -

a. Form __________ or holes for ions and transport __________ in or out of the cell
b. Act as __________ so molecules can bind to the cell
c. Provide support within a cell
d. Help start or speed up reactions (enzymes)
e. Join cells together
f. Cell identity – help cells recognize one another

-pores
-molecules
-receptors

69

-6 functions of Membrane proteins -

a. Form pores or holes for ions and transport molecules in or out of the cell
b. Act as receptors so molecules can bind to the cell
c. Provide __________ within a cell
d. Help start or speed up __________ (enzymes)
e. Join cells together
f. Cell identity – help cells recognize one another

-support
-reactions

70

-6 functions of Membrane proteins -

a. Form pores or holes for ions and transport molecules in or out of the cell
b. Act as receptors so molecules can bind to the cell
c. Provide support within a cell
d. Help start or speed up reactions (enzymes)
e. Join __________ together
f. Cell identity – help cells __________ one another

-cells
-recognize