Lecture Exam 3 - Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Exam 3 - Chapter 8 Deck (102):
1

_________ - refers to joints

Arthro

2

____ = plural
____ = singular

-ses
-sis

3

- Joint Function -

_________ – immovable joint

Synarthrosis

4

- Joint Function -

_________ – slightly movable

Amphiarthrosis

5

- Joint Function -

_________ – freely movable

Diarthrosis (or synovial)

6

- Joint Structure -

_________ – bones are joined by connective tissue, very little movement allowed

Fibrous

7

- Joint Structure -

_________ – bones are united by cartilage

Cartilaginous

8

- Joint Structure -

_________ – bones are separated by a fluid filled cavity

Synovial

9

-Four types of Fibrous Joints-

_________ – seams formed between the bones of the skull

Sutures

10

-Four types of Fibrous Joints-

_________ – two bones fuse and joint line disappears

Synostosis

11

-Four types of Fibrous Joints-

_________ – two bones are joined tightly together by
ligament

Syndesmoses

12

-Four types of Fibrous Joints-

_________ – bond between the periodontal ligament and teeth to hold them in their sockets

Gomphoses

13

-Two types of Cartilaginous Joints-

_________ – connecting material is hyaline cartilage

Synchondroses

14

-Two types of Cartilaginous Joints-

_________ – bones are separated by a pad of cartilage

Symphysis

15

_________ - Allow the most movement and are the most common type of joint

Synovial Joints

16

- 5 features of Synovial Joints -

_________ – smooth surface at the ends of two bones

Articular cartilage

17

- 5 features of Synovial Joints -

Articular cartilage:

-made up of _________ cartilage, but contains more _________
-Reduces _________ and acts as a shock absorber
-Compressed when force is applied

-hyaline
-water
-friction

18

- 5 features of Synovial Joints -

Articular cartilage:

-made up of hyaline cartilage, but contains more water
-Reduces friction and acts as a _________
- _________ when force is applied

-shock absorber
-Compressed

19

- 5 features of Synovial Joints -

_________ – space between the bones that contains fluid

Joint (synovial) cavity

20

- 5 features of Synovial Joints -

_________ – double layer membrane; provides the border of the joint cavity

Articular capsule

21

- 5 features of Synovial Joints -

Articular capsule:

_________ – continuous with the periosteum of the bones
--Provides _________ for the joint

-Fibrous capsule
-strength

22

- 5 features of Synovial Joints -

Articular capsule:

_________ – lines the inside of the fibrous capsule
--Cells secrete _________ fluid

-Synovial membrane
-synovial

23

- 5 features of Synovial Joints -

_________ – egg white consistency; found within the joint cavity

Synovial fluid

24

- 5 features of Synovial Joints -

Synovial fluid - three functions;

-Lubrication
-
-Shock absorption

-Nutrient distribution

25

- 5 features of Synovial Joints -

Synovial fluid - three functions;

-
-Nutrient distribution
-

-Lubrication
-Shock absorption

26

- 5 features of Synovial Joints -

_________ – connect bone to bone and provide strength and reinforcement for the joint

Ligaments

27

- 5 features of Synovial Joints -

Ligaments:

_________ – ligament is stretched to its limit; some collagen fibers tear

Sprain

28

_________ – called menisci (singular is meniscus)

Cartilage pads

29

_________ - Found between the femur and tibia

Cartilage pads

30

_________ – small mass of adipose

Fat pads

31

_________ - Provide some extra cushioning and fill in empty spaces created when the joint moves

Fat pads

32

_________ – cross over joints

Tendons

33

_________ - Limit movement and provide support

Tendons

34

_________ – fluid filled pockets that contain synovial fluid

Bursae

35

_________ - Reduce friction and act as shock absorbers

Bursae

36

_________ - bursitis

Inflammation

37

Generally, a joint with a lot of _________ is less stable and
joints that are _________ stable allow little movement

-mobility
-very

38

- Four factors affect Stability of a Joint -

_________ – provide stability, but not very effective if they’re the only source of support

Collagen fibers and ligaments

39

- Four factors affect Stability of a Joint -

Shapes of _________ surfaces and _________
--Shoulder vs. hip – acetabulum is very deep compared to the glenoid cavity

-articulating
-menisci

40

- Four factors affect Stability of a Joint -

Presence of other _________, muscles, or _________ around the joint

-bones
-fat pads

41

- Four factors affect Stability of a Joint -

_________ surrounding the joint
– _________ in any given direction may be encouraged or discouraged

-Tendons
-movement

42

Dislocation – also called _________

luxation

43

_________ - Bones are forced out of position – can cause damage to cartilage, ligaments and the joint capsule

luxation

44

Putting a joint back in position is called _________

reduction

45

_________ – partial dislocation

Subluxation

46

_________ joints – two flat surfaces slide along each other, but very little movement occurs

Planar

47

_________ joints
Example: intercarpal joints

Planar

48

_________ joints – permit movement in one plane

Hinge

49

_________ joints –
Example: humerus and ulna

Hinge

50

_________ joints – permit rotation only

Pivot

51

_________ joints –
Example: atlas and axis

Pivot

52

_________ joints – oval articular face sits in a depression on the opposite bone

Ellipsoidal or condyloid

53

_________ joints –
Example: metacarpals and phalanges

Ellipsoidal or condyloid

54

_________ joints – two bones fit together like a rider in a saddle

Saddle

55

_________ joints –
Example: trapezium and first metacarpal

Saddle

56

_________ joints – round head of one bone sits in a depression in the other bone

Ball and socket

57

_________ joints –
-Example: shoulder and hip
--Most mobile joints

Ball and socket

58

- Types of Movement -

_________ – two flat surfaces glide along each other

Gliding

59

- Types of Movement -

_________ -
Example: Carpal bones, tarsal bones, clavicles and sternum

Gliding

60

- Types of Movement -

_________ reduces the angle between 2 bones

Flexion

61

- Types of Movement -

_________ -
Examples – bending at the waist, leaning your head forward, bending your arm

Flexion

62

- Types of Movement -

_________ – increases the angle between 2 bones

Extension

63

- Types of Movement -

_________ -
Examples – standing upright, bringing head up, straightening arm

Extension

64

- Types of Movement -

_________ – going beyond anatomical position

Hyperextension

65

- Types of Movement -

_________ -
Examples – looking at the ceiling, bending wrist back

Hyperextension

66

- Types of Movement -

_________ – movement away from the midline of the body

Abduction

67

- Types of Movement -

_________ -
Example – moving arm away from side

Abduction

68

- Types of Movement -

_________ – movement toward the midline

Adduction

69

- Types of Movement -

_________ -
Bring arm back to body

Adduction

70

- Types of Movement -

Fingers – spreading apart is _________, bringing together is _________

-abduction
-adduction

71

- Types of Movement -

_________ – rotation of limb in a circle

Circumduction

72

- Types of Movement -

_________ – movement around an axis

Rotation

73

- Types of Movement -

_________ -
Example – turning the head left or right

Rotation

74

- Types of Movement -

_________ – turning palm over

Pronation

75

- Types of Movement -

_________ – palms facing forward; anatomical position

Supination

76

- Types of Movement -

_________ – toes move up toward leg; dig in your heels

Dorsiflexion

77

- Types of Movement -

_________ – point toes; stepping on the gas

Plantar flexion

78

- Types of Movement -

_________ – turning the sole of the foot inward

Inversion

79

- Types of Movement -

_________ – turning the sole of the foot outward

Eversion

80

- Types of Movement -

_________ – movement anteriorly – sticking out jaw

Protraction

81

- Types of Movement -

_________ – movement posteriorly – pulling jaw in

Retraction

82

- Types of Movement -

_________ – superior movement – shrugging shoulders

Elevation

83

- Types of Movement -

_________ – inferior movement – open mouth

Depression

84

- Types of Movement -

_________ – touching thumb to other fingers

Opposition

85

- Types of Movement -

_________ – bending to the side

Lateral flexion

86

Three articulations that make up the knee joint:

- medial condyles
- _________ condyles
- Patella and patellar surface of the _________

-lateral
-femur

87

Three articulations that make up the knee joint:

- _________ condyles
- lateral condyles
- _________ and _________ surface of the femur

-medial
-Patella
-patellar

88

Three functions of the menisci.:

-Act as _________
-Change shape to conform to the shape of the articular surfaces as the femur moves
-Provide _________ stability

-cushions
-lateral

89

Three functions of the menisci.:

-Act as cushions
-Change _________ to conform to the shape of the _________ surfaces as the femur moves
-Provide lateral stability

-shape
-articular

90

Seven ligaments associated with knee:

_________ – continuation of the tendon of the quadriceps femurs
--Attaches to the tibial tuberosity

Patellar ligament

91

Seven ligaments associated with knee:

_________ – extend from the femur to the heads of the tibia and fibula posteriorly

Popliteal ligaments (2)

92

Seven ligaments associated with knee:

_________ – attach the intercondylar area of the tibia to the condyles of the femur

Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments

93

Seven ligaments associated with knee:

_________ – stabilize the medial and lateral surfaces of the knee when the leg is extended

Tibial (medial) and fibular (lateral) collateral ligaments

94

The _________ is the most mobile and most frequently _________ joint in the body.

-shoulder
-dislocated

95

-Shoulder _________ – dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint
--Usually the result of a blow to the superior surface of the shoulder

-separation

96

Shoulder _________ – head of the humerus slips out of the glenoid cavity

dislocation

97

The elbow joint is made up of the:
-
- Radius
-

-Humerus
-Ulna

98

Strongest point of the elbow joint is where the _________ of the humerus and the _________ of the ulna articulate

-trochlea-trochlear notch

99

The hip is made up of the head of the _________ and the _________ of the coxal bone

-femur
-acetabulum

100

_________ – usually results from the wear and tear on the joint surfaces

Osteoarthritis

101

_________ – inflammation of the joints

Rheumatoid Arthritis

102

_________ – crystals of uric acid form within the synovial fluid

Gouty arthritis