Lecture Exam 4 - Chapter 13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Exam 4 - Chapter 13 Deck (78):
1

ii. Learned or acquired reflexes – result of practice or repetition
1. Example – driving a car – series of complex movements, but we’re not consciously aware of many of them
-Classification of Sensory Receptors-

_________ – stimulated by touch, vibration, pressure, stretch, and itch

Mechanoreceptors

2

-Classification of Sensory Receptors-

_________ – sensitive to change in temperature

Thermoreceptors

3

-Classification of Sensory Receptors-

_________ – sensitive to light

Photoreceptors

4

-Classification of Sensory Receptors-

_________ – chemicals (smelling and tasting)

Chemoreceptors

5

-Classification of Sensory Receptors-

_________ – pain

Nociceptors

6

- Receptors by Location -

_________ – sensitive to changes outside the body
-Touch, temperature, sight, etc

Exteroceptors

7

- Receptors by Location -

_________ – respond to changes within the body
-Chemical changes, temperature, hunger, pain, etc.

Interoreceptors

8

- Receptors by Location -

_________ – respond to changes within the body but
are restricted to muscles, tendons, joints, and inner ear

Proprioceptors

9

- Receptors by Location -

_________ -Tell us where we are in space by monitoring body position, muscle length and tension, and movement of joints

Proprioceptors

10

- Receptors by Structure -

_________ – bare dendrites
-Detect pain, temperature, itch, tickle and some touch sensations

Free nerve endings

11

- Receptors by Structure -

_________ - Detect pain, temperature, itch, tickle and some touch sensations

Free nerve endings

12

- Receptors by Structure -

_________ – dendrites are enclosed in a capsule
-Detect touch, pressure, and vibration

Encapsulated dendritic endings

13

- Receptors by Structure -

_________ - Detect touch, pressure, and vibration

-Include meissner’s corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, and Ruffini’s corpuscles

Encapsulated dendritic endings

14

- Receptors by Structure -

_________ – proprioceptors found in skeletal muscle

-Measure how much a muscle is being stretched
-Impulses are sent to the cerebrum

Muscle spindles

15

- Receptors by Structure -

_________ - Measure how much a muscle is being stretched

-Impulses are sent to the cerebrum (conscious
proprioception) and cerebellum (coordination)

Muscle spindles

16

- Receptors by Structure -

_________ – located at junction of muscle and tendon

-Initiate reflexes that relaxes muscle before it contracts too forcefully

Tendon organs

17

- Receptors by Structure -

_________ - Initiate reflexes that relaxes muscle before it contracts too forcefully

Tendon organs

18

- Receptors by Structure -

_________ – several types of receptors that monitor joint position and movement

Joint kinesthetic receptors

19

- Stimulation of sensory receptor -

1. stimulus must be specific to _________ (i.e. touch receptor doesn’t respond to light)
2. Stimulus must be in receptor’s “_________” – area of the body it is monitoring
**- Converting a stimulus to an action potential **
3. Stimulus must be converted to energy – called transduction
--Causes depolarization or hyperpolarization
4. Generation of impulses – threshold must be reached so an action potential is triggered and impulse is carried towards the CNS
--1st order neurons – conduct sensory impulses from the PNS to the CNS

-receptor
-range

20

- Stimulation of sensory receptor -

1. stimulus must be specific to receptor (i.e. touch receptor doesn’t respond to light)
2. Stimulus must be in receptor’s “range” – area of the body it is monitoring
**- Converting a _________ to an _________ potential **
3. Stimulus must be converted to energy – called transduction
--Causes depolarization or hyperpolarization
4. Generation of impulses – threshold must be reached so an action potential is triggered and impulse is carried towards the CNS
--1st order neurons – conduct sensory impulses from the PNS to the CNS

-stimulus
-action

21

- Stimulation of sensory receptor -

1. stimulus must be specific to receptor (i.e. touch receptor doesn’t respond to light)
2. Stimulus must be in receptor’s “range” – area of the body it is monitoring
**- Converting a stimulus to an action potential **
3. Stimulus must be converted to _________ – called transduction
--Causes _________ or hyperpolarization
4. Generation of impulses – threshold must be reached so an action potential is triggered and impulse is carried towards the CNS
--1st order neurons – conduct sensory impulses from the PNS to the CNS

-energy
-depolarization

22

- Stimulation of sensory receptor -

1. stimulus must be specific to receptor (i.e. touch receptor doesn’t respond to light)
2. Stimulus must be in receptor’s “range” – area of the body it is monitoring
**- Converting a stimulus to an action potential **
3. Stimulus must be converted to energy – called _________
--Causes depolarization or hyperpolarization
4. Generation of _________ – threshold must be reached so an action potential is triggered and impulse is carried towards the CNS
--1st order neurons – conduct sensory impulses from the PNS to the CNS

-transduction
-impulses

23

- Stimulation of sensory receptor -

1. stimulus must be specific to receptor (i.e. touch receptor doesn’t respond to light)
2. Stimulus must be in receptor’s “range” – area of the body it is monitoring
**- Converting a stimulus to an action potential **
3. Stimulus must be converted to energy – called transduction
--Causes depolarization or hyperpolarization
4. Generation of impulses – _________ must be reached so an action potential is triggered and impulse is carried towards the _________
--1st order neurons – conduct _________ impulses from the PNS to the CNS

-threshold
-CNS
-sensory

24

- Three levels of integration -

_________ – sensory receptors

Receptor

25

- Three levels of integration -

_________ – ascending pathways

Circuit

26

- Three levels of integration -

_________ – cerebral cortex

Perceptual

27

_________ - Stimulus must be converted to energy

transduction

28

In the _________ :
Impulses are sent to thalamus, cerebellum, then to the cerebral cortex where impulse is interpreted

Circuit level

29

In the Circuit level:
Impulses are sent to _________, cerebellum, then to the _________ cortex where impulse is interpreted

-thalamus
-cerebral

30

-6 parts of perceptual integration-

_________ – something is happening

Perceptual detection

31

-6 parts of perceptual integration-

_________ – how intense is the stimulus

magnitude estimation

32

-6 parts of perceptual integration-

_________ – identification of area of the body and 2-point discrimination

spatial discrimination

33

-6 parts of perceptual integration-

_________ – identification of an object based on its texture and shape

feature abstraction

34

-6 parts of perceptual integration-

_________ – determining if something is sweet or bitter, or seeing shades of colors

quality discrimination

35

-6 parts of perceptual integration-

_________ – like recognizing a melody and not just listening to individual notes

Pattern recognition getting the “big picture”

36

Pain is carried by _________ – found in every tissue except the brain

nociceptors

37

_________ pain – occurs rapidly; usually described as sharp like a needle stick

Fast

38

_________ pain – travels much more slowly; usually described as aching, burning, or throbbing

Slow

39

- structural arrangement of a nerve -

_________ – connective tissue that wraps around myelin sheath of axons

Endoneurium

40

- structural arrangement of a nerve -

_________ – wraps around fascicles bundles of axons)

Perineurium

41

- structural arrangement of a nerve -

_________ – wraps around entire nerve

Epineurium

42

Humans have ___ pairs of spinal nerves

31

43

- 4 rami of Spinal Nerves -

_________ – innervates muscles and skin of the trunk

Dorsal ramus

44

- 4 rami of Spinal Nerves -

_________ – innervates muscles of the limbs and skin of the back

Ventral

45

- 4 rami of Spinal Nerves -

_________ – reenters the vertebral canal and innervates the vertebrae, ligaments, and blood vessels

Meningeal branch

46

- 4 rami of Spinal Nerves -

_________ – part of the ANS (autonomic nervous system)

Rami communicantes

47

- 4 major plexuses -

_________ – innervates the skin and muscles of the head, neck, shoulders, back, and chest

-Includes spinal nerves from C1-C5

Cervical

48

- 4 major plexuses -

Cervical :
-Includes spinal nerves from _________

-C1-C5

49

- 4 major plexuses -

_________ – innervates the shoulders and upper limbs

-Formed by ventral rami of C5-T1

Brachial

50

- 4 major plexuses -

Brachial :
-Formed by ventral rami of _________

-C5-T1

51

- 4 major plexuses -

_________ – innervates abdominal wall, external genitals, and part of lower limbs

-Formed by spinal nerves L1-L4

Lumbar

52

- 4 major plexuses -

Lumbar – innervates abdominal wall, external genitals, and part of lower limbs

-Formed by spinal nerves _________

-L1-L4

53

- 4 major plexuses -

_________ – innervates gluteal region, perineum (see page 345), and lower limbs (page 510)

-Formed by L4/L5 and S1-S4

Sacral

54

- 4 major plexuses -

Sacral – innervates gluteal region, perineum (see page 345), and lower limbs (page 510)

-Formed by _________ and _________

-L4/L5
-S1-S4

55

_________ – longest and thickest nerve and innervates most of the lower limb

Sciatic

56

_________ nerve – innervates adductor muscles

Obturator

57

_________ nerve – innervates anterior and medial thigh

Femoral

58

_________ nerve – innervates the diaphragm

Phrenic

59

- Motor Activity -

_________ level – contained within the spinal cord

-Ventral horn neurons are activated in a group of cord segments, causing them to stimulate groups of muscles

Segmental

60

- Motor Activity -

Segmental level – contained within the spinal cord

- _________ neurons are activated in a group of cord segments, causing them to stimulate groups of _________

-Ventral horn
-muscles

61

- Motor Activity -

_________ level – upper motor neurons of the cerebral cortex and brain stem

-Produce specific movements in skeletal muscle
-Control spinal cord circuits
-Send information to lower motor neurons (neurons that innervate muscles)
-Send information to higher command centers

Projection

62

- Motor Activity -

Projection level – upper motor neurons of the cerebral cortex and _________

-Produce specific movements in _________ muscle
-Control _________ circuits
-Send information to lower motor neurons (neurons that innervate muscles)
-Send information to higher command centers

-brain stem
-skeletal
spinal cord

63

- Motor Activity -

_________ level – cerebellum and basal nuclei

-Start or stop movement, coordinate movements with _________, block unwanted movements, and monitor muscle tone

-Precommand
-posture

64

_________ reflexes – “built in” reflex

Example – splash hot water on your arm from a pot, you will drop the pot before you even feel pain

-Brain is aware of what happened, but is not involved in the action

Inborn

65

Inborn reflexes – “built in” reflex

Example – splash hot water on your arm from a pot, you will drop the pot before you even feel pain

- _________ is aware of what happened, but is not involved in the _________

-Brain
-action

66

_________ reflexes – result of practice or repetition

Example – driving a car – series of complex movements, but we’re not consciously aware of many of them

Learned or acquired

67

Learned or acquired reflexes – result of practice or repetition

Example – _________ – series of complex movements, but we’re not _________ aware of many of them

-driving a car
-consciously

68

- 5 parts of a reflex arc -

_________ – responds to change in the environment

Sensory receptor

69

- 5 parts of a reflex arc -

_________ – carries message from the receptor to the CNS

Sensory neuron

70

- 5 parts of a reflex arc -

_________ – gray matter within the CNS

-Connection(s) between sensory neuron and motor neuron

Integrating center

71

- 5 parts of a reflex arc -

_________ – carries message to part of the body that will respond

Motor neuron

72

- 5 parts of a reflex arc -

_________ – muscle or gland that responds to nerve impulse from the motor neuron

Effector

73

_________ reflex – tapping tendon of elbow, wrist, knee, and ankle

-Stretches muscle spindles slightly, which results in contraction of muscle

Stretch

74

Stretch reflex – tapping tendon of elbow, wrist, knee, and ankle

-Stretches _________ spindles slightly, which results in contraction of muscle
-Contraction relieves the _________
- _________ muscles are inhibited

-muscle
-stretching
-Antagonistic

75

_________ reflex – usually involves withdrawal from pain

-Cross-extensor reflex – when flexors on one side are activated, extensors on opposite side are also activated
-For example – step on something sharp barefoot – flexor reflex draws your foot up and crossed extensor reflex allows other leg to hold you up

Flexor

76

Flexor reflex – usually involves withdrawal from pain

- _________ reflex – when flexors on one side are activated, extensors on _________ side are also activated
-For example – step on something sharp barefoot – flexor reflex draws your foot up and crossed extensor reflex allows other leg to hold you up

-Cross-extensor
-opposite

77

_________ reflex – tests spinal cord from L4 – S2

-Draw a blunt object down along the lateral aspect of the
plantar surface
--Toes should curl
--Abnormal reflex – called Babinski’s sign; big toe curls, and others fan laterally

Plantar

78

Plantar reflex – tests spinal cord from L4 – S2

-Draw a blunt object down along the _________ aspect of the
plantar surface
-- _________ should curl
-- _________ reflex – called Babinski’s sign; big toe curls, and others fan laterally

-lateral
-Toes
-Abnormal