Lecture Exam 3 - Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Exam 3 - Chapter 9 Deck (84):
1

_________ muscle – muscles attached to bone

Skeletal

2

_________ muscle:
Function – produce movement by pulling on bone

Skeletal

3

_________ muscle – muscle of the heart

Cardiac

4

_________ muscle:
Function – pushes blood through the circulatory system

Cardiac

5

_________ muscle – lines the hollow organs

Smooth

6

_________ muscle:
Function – pushes things through and out of the body

Smooth

7

- Properties of muscle -

_________ – ability to respond to nerve impulses

Electrical excitability

8

- Properties of muscle -

_________ – ability to contract and generate force

Contractility

9

- Properties of muscle -

_________ – ability to stretch without being damaged

Extensibility

10

- Properties of muscle -

_________ – ability to return to its original shape and size

Elasticity

11

-four functions of skeletal muscle-

_________ – muscle contracts pulling on the tendon which moves a bone (i.e. running, walking, nodding the head)

Produce movement

12

-four functions of skeletal muscle-

Produce movement:
- _________ muscle moves blood throughout the body
- _________ muscle moves substances (food, urine, etc.) through and out of the body

-Cardiac
-Smooth

13

-four functions of skeletal muscle-

_________ – some muscles are always active to allow us to sit up, stand, etc.

Maintain posture and body position

14

-four functions of skeletal muscle-

Muscles _________ joints and help keep them _________

-cross
-stable

15

-four functions of skeletal muscle-

_________ – when a muscle contracts, heat is given off as a waste product

Maintenance of body temperature

16

- Three layers of connective tissue -

_________ – surrounds the whole muscle
--Separates the muscle from surrounding structures

Epimysium

17

- Three layers of connective tissue -

_________ – divides muscle into bundles of muscle cells called fascicles
--Also contains blood vessels and nerves that supply the muscle

Perimysium

18

- Three layers of connective tissue -

_________ – surrounds individual muscle cells
--Contains capillaries, cells to repair muscle, and nerves that control the muscle

Endomysium

19

Muscle requires a large amount of blood supply to bring in _________ and nutrients and carry away _________ products

-oxygen
-waste

20

Muscle cell = muscle _________

fiber

21

"_________” means muscle

Sarco

22

_________ – cell membrane of a muscle cell

Sarcolemma

23

_________ – cytoplasm of a muscle cell

Sarcoplasm

24

_________ – extensions of the sarcolemma

T tubules

25

_________ – organelle that stores calcium

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

26

-Sarcoplasmic reticulum-

-Tubular network surrounds each _________
-Terminal _________ – enlarged areas of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
-- _________ is released from the TC
-Release of calcium from the terminal cisternae is the first step in muscle _________

-myofibril
-cisternae
-Calcium
-contraction

27

- Sarcomere -

_________ mark the border of a sarcomere

Z lines or Z discs

28

- Sarcomere -

_________ is the center of the thick filament

M line

29

- Sarcomere -

_________ are the dark bands

A bands

30

- Sarcomere -

_________ are the light bands

I bands

31

- Sarcomere -

_________ light area on either side of the M line

H zone

32

- Sarcomere -

_________ – overlap of thin and thick filaments

Zone of Overlap

33

_________ filaments – made up of myosin

Thick

34

_________ filaments – made up of actin

Thin

35

- Muscle Proteins -

_________ – motor protein found in thick filaments

Myosin

36

- Muscle Proteins -

_________ - interacts with actin

Myosin

37

- Muscle Proteins -

_________ – thin filaments made up of a twisted strand of actin molecules

Actin

38

- Muscle Proteins -

Each actin molecules has an “active” site where it will bind with _________ during muscle contraction

-myosin

39

- Muscle Proteins -

_________ – double stranded protein that covers active sites on the actin molecules

Tropomyosin

40

- Muscle Proteins -

_________ – protein that sits on top of the tropomyosin

Troponin

41

- Muscle Proteins -

_________ –
Attached to the Z disc at each end of the sarcomere

Troponin

42

- Muscle Proteins -

_________ – large protein that anchors thick filament to a Z disc and the M line

Titin

43

_________ filaments connect to the thin and pull them to the center of the _________ .

-Thick
-sarcomere

44

_________ – pressure applied TO something – pulling on a rope, carrying a book

Tension

45

_________ – force that opposes movement

Resistance

46

Tension must overcome _________ in order for movement to occur

resistance

47

Connection between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber is called the _________

neuromuscular junction

48

- four steps in the neuronal stimulation of a muscle -

1. Release of _________ into the _________ cleft (space)
2. ACh binds to the _________ on the muscle
3. Action potential continues on the muscle in the sarcolemma and is carried to all parts of the fiber by the T tubules
4. Return to rest – ACh is broken down by ACHe and action potential is over

-ACh
-synaptic
-receptors

49

- four steps in the neuronal stimulation of a muscle -


1. Release of ACh into the synaptic cleft (space)
2. ACh binds to the receptors on the muscle
3. _________ potential continues on the muscle in the _________ and is carried to all parts of the fiber by the _________
4. Return to rest – ACh is broken down by ACHe and action potential is over

-Action
-sarcolemma
-T tubules

50

- four steps in the neuronal stimulation of a muscle -

1. Release of ACh into the synaptic cleft (space)
2. ACh binds to the receptors on the muscle
3. Action potential continues on the muscle in the sarcolemma and is carried to all parts of the fiber by the T tubules
4. Return to _________ – ACh is broken down by _________ and action potential is over

-rest
-ACHe

51

-Excitation-Contraction Coupling-

-Action potential travels along the _________
1. Causes the release of _________ into the sarcoplasm from the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic _________
2. Binds to troponin, which causes tropomyosin to move in between the strands of actin
--This exposes the binding sites on the actin

-sarcolemma
-calcium
-reticulum

52

-Excitation-Contraction Coupling-

-Action potential travels along the sarcolemma
1. Causes the release of calcium into the sarcoplasm from the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
2. Binds to _________, which causes _________ to move in between the strands of actin
--This exposes the binding sites on the actin

-troponin
-tropomyosin

53

-Excitation-Contraction Coupling-

-Action potential travels along the sarcolemma
1. Causes the release of calcium into the sarcoplasm from the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
2. Binds to troponin, which causes tropomyosin to move in between the strands of _________
--This exposes the _________ sites on the actin

-actin
-binding

54

- Contraction Cycle -

1. ATP splits – into ____ (adenosine diphosphate) and a _________ group
2. Head of the myosin attaches to the binding site (cross bridge)
3. Cross bridge flexes (myosin head bends), moving the thin filament toward the middle of the sarcomere
--Called the “power stroke”
4. ATP binds with the myosin head, which releases the myosin head from the actin

-ADP
-phosphate

55

- Contraction Cycle -

1. ATP splits – into ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a phosphate group
2. Head of the _________ attaches to the _________ site (cross bridge)
3. Cross bridge flexes (myosin head bends), moving the thin filament toward the middle of the sarcomere
--Called the “power stroke”
4. ATP binds with the myosin head, which releases the myosin head from the actin

-myosin
-binding

56

- Contraction Cycle -

1. ATP splits – into ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a phosphate group
2. Head of the myosin attaches to the binding site (cross bridge)
3. Cross bridge _________ (myosin head bends), moving the _________ filament toward the middle of the _________
--Called the “power stroke”
4. ATP binds with the myosin head, which releases the myosin head from the actin

-flexes
-thin
-sarcomere

57

- Contraction Cycle -

1. ATP splits – into ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a phosphate group
2. Head of the myosin attaches to the binding site (cross bridge)
3. Cross bridge flexes (myosin head bends), moving the thin filament toward the middle of the sarcomere
--Called the “power stroke”
4. ATP binds with the _________ head, which releases the myosin head from the _________

-myosin
-actin

58

- Relaxation -

1. When _________ impulse stops, release of ____ stops
2. Calcium is returned to the terminal cisternae – requires energy (ATP)
3. When calcium is take back by the SR, troponin changes shape and tropomyosin once again covers the binding sites on the actin
--Muscle relaxes

-nerve
-ACh

59

- Relaxation -

1. When nerve impulse stops, release of ACh stops
2. _________ is returned to the terminal _________ – requires energy (ATP)
3. When calcium is take back by the SR, troponin changes shape and tropomyosin once again covers the binding sites on the actin
--Muscle relaxes

-Calcium
-cisternae

60

- Relaxation -

1. When nerve impulse stops, release of ACh stops
2. Calcium is returned to the terminal cisternae – requires energy (ATP)
3. When calcium is take back by the ___, troponin changes shape and _________ once again covers the binding sites on the actin
--Muscle relaxes

-SR
-tropomyosin

61

One motor neuron and all the fibers it supplies is a _________

motor unit

62

_________ number of fibers per neuron – fine motor skills; precise control (fingers, eyes)

-Low

63

_________ number of fibers per neuron – less precise movement (large thigh and leg muscles)

-High

64

- Three phases of muscle twitch -

_________ – time it takes for the action potential to travel across the sarcolemma and calcium to be released from the SR

Latent period

65

- Three phases of muscle twitch -

_________ – peak of tension
--Calcium binds to troponin, active sites are exposed, cross bridges are formed

Contraction phase

66

- Three phases of muscle twitch -

_________ – muscle returns to rest
--Calcium levels fall, active sites are covered, and cross bridges detach

Relaxation

67

-Muscle is stimulated a second time before relaxation phase has ended
-Second contraction is significantly stronger than the first: Called _________

wave summation

68

_________ – muscle is never allowed to relax completely

Incomplete (unfused) tetanus

69

_________ – relaxation phase doesn’t occur at all

Complete (fused) tetanus

70

_________ – as strength of the stimulus increases, more muscle fibers contract

Multiple motor unit summation

71

Multiple motor unit summation:

-Some motor units respond to weak stimulus, some require a stronger stimulus
-More and more motor units are activated as the signal strength increases – called _________

recruitment

72

_________ contraction – muscle length changes (includes walking running, lifting)

Isotonic

73

_________ contraction – muscle length doesn’t change, and tension doesn’t exceed resistance
(Holding a baby, standing up, carrying a book)

Isometric

74

_________ metabolism – uses oxygen to produce ATP

Aerobic

75

_________ metabolism – does not require oxygen

Anaerobic

76

Three types of _________ :
-fast
-slow
-intermediate

Muscle Fibers

77

-Three types of Muscle Fibers-

_________ – most common type; large in diameter

-Produce fast, powerful contractions, but fatigue rapidly
-Used in sprinting and weight lifting

Fast glycolytic fibers

78

-Three types of Muscle Fibers-

Fast glycolytic fibers-

-Produce fast, powerful _________, but _________ rapidly
-Used in sprinting and weight lifting

-contractions
-fatigue

79

-Three types of Muscle Fibers-

_________ – smaller fibers

-Take longer to contract, but can contract for longer periods of time
-Have a more abundant blood supply
-Used in running long distances, walking, maintaining posture

Slow oxidative fibers

80

-Three types of Muscle Fibers-

Slow oxidative fibers – smaller fibers

-Take _________ to contract, but can contract for longer periods of time
-Have a more abundant _________
-Used in _________ long distances, walking, maintaining posture

-longer
-blood supply
-running

81

-Three types of Muscle Fibers-

_________ – in between slow and fast in both size and endurance

Fast oxidative fibers (intermediate)

82

-Differences in Cardiac Muscle-

1. _________ are smaller and usually only have one _________
2. No terminal cisternae – sarcoplasmic reticulum is connected directly to the sarcolemma and T tubules
3. Uses aerobic metabolism almost exclusively
4. Intercalated discs – specialized cell junctions

-Cells
-nucleus

83

-Differences in Cardiac Muscle-

1. Cells are smaller and usually only have one nucleus
2. No _________ cisternae – sarcoplasmic reticulum is connected directly to the _________ and T tubules
3. Uses aerobic metabolism almost exclusively
4. Intercalated discs – specialized cell junctions

-terminal
-sarcolemma

84

-Differences in Cardiac Muscle-

1. Cells are smaller and usually only have one nucleus
2. No terminal cisternae – sarcoplasmic reticulum is connected directly to the sarcolemma and T tubules
3. Uses _________ metabolism almost exclusively
4. _________ discs – specialized cell junctions

-aerobic
-Intercalated